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      Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) associated with arabica coffee and geographical distribution in the neotropical region

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          Abstract

          ABSTRACT Coffee is one of the most important Brazilian agricultural commodities exported, and Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo States are the main coffee producers. Scale insects are important coffee pests, and 73 species of Cerococcidae (3), Coccidae (18), Diaspididae (6), Eriococcidae (1), Ortheziidae (3), Pseudococcidae (21), Putoidae (2) and Rhizoecidae (19) have been associated with roots, branches, leaves, flowers and fruits of Arabica coffee in the Neotropics. Eight species were found associated with Arabica coffee in Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo States in this study, and Coccidae was the most frequent family. Coccus alpinus, Cc. celatus, Cc. lizeri, Cc. viridis, and Saissetia coffeae (Coccidae) were found in both states; Alecanochiton marquesi, Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (Diaspididae), and Dysmicoccus texensis (Pseudococcidae) were only found in Minas Gerais. Alecanochiton marquesi and P. trilobitiformis are first reported in Minas Gerais, and Cc. alpinus in Espírito Santo, on Arabica coffee. All scale insect species were associated with coffee leaves and branches, except D. texensis, associated with coffee roots. Fourty seven scale insect species have been found occurring in Brazilian Arabica coffee, and in Espírito Santo (28) and Minas Gerais (23). Widespread and geographical distribution of each species found are discussed.

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          Explaining the abundance of ants in lowland tropical rainforest canopies.

          The extraordinary abundance of ants in tropical rainforest canopies has led to speculation that numerous arboreal ant taxa feed principally as "herbivores" of plant and insect exudates. Based on nitrogen (N) isotope ratios of plants, known herbivores, arthropod predators, and ants from Amazonia and Borneo, we find that many arboreal ant species obtain little N through predation and scavenging. Microsymbionts of ants and their hemipteran trophobionts might play key roles in the nutrition of taxa specializing on N-poor exudates. For plants, the combined costs of biotic defenses and herbivory by ants and tended Hemiptera are substantial, and forest losses to insect herbivores vastly exceed current estimates.
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            Bottom-up control and co-occurrence in complex communities: honeydew and nectar determine a rainforest ant mosaic

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              ScaleNet: a literature-based model of scale insect biology and systematics

              Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) are small herbivorous insects found on all continents except Antarctica. They are extremely invasive, and many species are serious agricultural pests. They are also emerging models for studies of the evolution of genetic systems, endosymbiosis and plant-insect interactions. ScaleNet was launched in 1995 to provide insect identifiers, pest managers, insect systematists, evolutionary biologists and ecologists efficient access to information about scale insect biological diversity. It provides comprehensive information on scale insects taken directly from the primary literature. Currently, it draws from 23 477 articles and describes the systematics and biology of 8194 valid species. For 20 years, ScaleNet ran on the same software platform. That platform is no longer viable. Here, we present a new, open-source implementation of ScaleNet. We have normalized the data model, begun the process of correcting invalid data, upgraded the user interface, and added online administrative tools. These improvements make ScaleNet easier to use and maintain and make the ScaleNet data more accurate and extendable. Database URL: http://scalenet.info
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                aabc
                Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
                An. Acad. Bras. Ciênc.
                Academia Brasileira de Ciências (Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil )
                0001-3765
                1678-2690
                December 2017
                : 89
                : 4
                : 3083-3092
                Affiliations
                São João Evangelista Minas Gerais orgnameInstituto Federal de Minas Gerais Brazil
                Vitória ES orgnameInstituto Capixaba de Pesquisa, Assistência Técnica e Extensão Rural orgdiv1Departamento de Entomologia Brazil
                Viçosa Minas Gerais orgnameUniversidade Federal de Viçosa orgdiv1Departamento de Entomologia Brazil
                San Miguel de Tucumán Tucumán orgnameUniversidad Nacional de Tucumán orgdiv1Instituto Miguel Lillo orgdiv2Facultad de Ciencias Naturales Argentina
                Article
                S0001-37652017000603083
                10.1590/0001-3765201720160689

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 70, Pages: 10
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