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      ROS-mediated abiotic stress-induced programmed cell death in plants

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          Abstract

          During the course of their ontogenesis plants are continuously exposed to a large variety of abiotic stress factors which can damage tissues and jeopardize the survival of the organism unless properly countered. While animals can simply escape and thus evade stressors, plants as sessile organisms have developed complex strategies to withstand them. When the intensity of a detrimental factor is high, one of the defense programs employed by plants is the induction of programmed cell death (PCD). This is an active, genetically controlled process which is initiated to isolate and remove damaged tissues thereby ensuring the survival of the organism. The mechanism of PCD induction usually includes an increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which are utilized as mediators of the stress signal. Abiotic stress-induced PCD is not only a process of fundamental biological importance, but also of considerable interest to agricultural practice as it has the potential to significantly influence crop yield. Therefore, numerous scientific enterprises have focused on elucidating the mechanisms leading to and controlling PCD in response to adverse conditions in plants. This knowledge may help develop novel strategies to obtain more resilient crop varieties with improved tolerance and enhanced productivity. The aim of the present review is to summarize the recent advances in research on ROS-induced PCD related to abiotic stress and the role of the organelles in the process.

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          NADPH oxidase AtrbohD and AtrbohF genes function in ROS-dependent ABA signaling in Arabidopsis.

          Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been proposed to function as second messengers in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling in guard cells. However, the question whether ROS production is indeed required for ABA signal transduction in vivo has not yet been addressed, and the molecular mechanisms mediating ROS production during ABA signaling remain unknown. Here, we report identification of two partially redundant Arabidopsis guard cell-expressed NADPH oxidase catalytic subunit genes, AtrbohD and AtrbohF, in which gene disruption impairs ABA signaling. atrbohD/F double mutations impair ABA-induced stomatal closing, ABA promotion of ROS production, ABA-induced cytosolic Ca(2+) increases and ABA- activation of plasma membrane Ca(2+)-permeable channels in guard cells. Exogenous H(2)O(2) rescues both Ca(2+) channel activation and stomatal closing in atrbohD/F. ABA inhibition of seed germination and root elongation are impaired in atrbohD/F, suggesting more general roles for ROS and NADPH oxidases in ABA signaling. These data provide direct molecular genetic and cell biological evidence that ROS are rate-limiting second messengers in ABA signaling, and that the AtrbohD and AtrbohF NADPH oxidases function in guard cell ABA signal transduction.
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            Response of plants to water stress

            Water stress adversely impacts many aspects of the physiology of plants, especially photosynthetic capacity. If the stress is prolonged, plant growth, and productivity are severely diminished. Plants have evolved complex physiological and biochemical adaptations to adjust and adapt to a variety of environmental stresses. The molecular and physiological mechanisms associated with water-stress tolerance and water-use efficiency have been extensively studied. The systems that regulate plant adaptation to water stress through a sophisticated regulatory network are the subject of the current review. Molecular mechanisms that plants use to increase stress tolerance, maintain appropriate hormone homeostasis and responses and prevent excess light damage, are also discussed. An understanding of how these systems are regulated and ameliorate the impact of water stress on plant productivity will provide the information needed to improve plant stress tolerance using biotechnology, while maintaining the yield and quality of crops.
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              Research on plant abiotic stress responses in the post-genome era: past, present and future.

              Understanding abiotic stress responses in plants is an important and challenging topic in plant research. Physiological and molecular biological analyses have allowed us to draw a picture of abiotic stress responses in various plants, and determination of the Arabidopsis genome sequence has had a great impact on this research field. The availability of the complete genome sequence has facilitated access to essential information for all genes, e.g. gene products and their function, transcript levels, putative cis-regulatory elements, and alternative splicing patterns. These data have been obtained from comprehensive transcriptome analyses and studies using full-length cDNA collections and T-DNA- or transposon-tagged mutant lines, which were also enhanced by genome sequence information. Moreover, studies on novel regulatory mechanisms involving use of small RNA molecules, chromatin modulation and genomic DNA modification have enabled us to recognize that plants have evolved complicated and sophisticated systems in response to complex abiotic stresses. Integrated data obtained with various 'omics' approaches have provided a more comprehensive picture of abiotic stress responses. In addition, research on stress responses in various plant species other than Arabidopsis has increased our knowledge regarding the mechanisms of plant stress tolerance in nature. Based on this progress, improvements in crop stress tolerance have been attempted by means of gene transfer and marker-assisted breeding. In this review, we summarize recent progress in abiotic stress studies, especially in the post-genomic era, and offer new perspectives on research directions for the next decade.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Plant Sci
                Front Plant Sci
                Front. Plant Sci.
                Frontiers in Plant Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-462X
                18 February 2015
                2015
                : 6
                : 69
                Affiliations
                [1] 1Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Plovdiv Bulgaria
                [2] 2Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Groningen, Groningen Netherlands
                [3] 3Department of Molecular Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Biology, University of Potsdam, Potsdam-Golm Germany
                Author notes

                Edited by: Patrick Gallois, University of Manchester, UK

                Reviewed by: Vasileios Fotopoulos, Cyprus University of Technology, Cyprus; Robert Fluhr, Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel

                *Correspondence: Tsanko S. Gechev, Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Ruski Boulevard 105, Plovdiv 4000, Bulgaria e-mail: tsangech@ 123456uni-plovdiv.bg

                This article was submitted to Plant Physiology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Plant Science.

                Article
                10.3389/fpls.2015.00069
                4332301
                25741354
                796a320a-dea6-461d-9eed-877de71f77f7
                Copyright © 2015 Petrov, Hille, Mueller-Roeber and Gechev.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 31 October 2014
                : 26 January 2015
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 196, Pages: 16, Words: 0
                Categories
                Plant Science
                Review Article

                Plant science & Botany
                abiotic stress,programmed cell death,reactive oxygen species,signal transduction,stress adaptation

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