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      The use of fondaparinux for the treatment of venous thromboembolism in a patient with heparin-induced thombocytopenia and thrombosis caused by heparin flushes

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          Abstract

          Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an immunologic drug reaction characterized by paradoxical association with venous and arterial thrombosis. The syndrome is caused by IgG antibodies that are reactive against complexes of platelet factor 4 and heparin. Fondparinux does not bind to platelet factor 4, is structurally too short to induce an antibody response, and could in theory be a useful agent to treat HIT. A 69-year-old white female presented with a lower extremity extensive iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis after a right total knee arthroplasty and was subsequently found to have a pulmonary embolism. The patient was noted to have heparin flushes during her operation. Her platelet drop decreased >50% from baseline during initiation of antithrombotic therapy. She was started on subcutaneous fondaparinux 7.5 mg once daily injection. Her serotonin release assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for heparin antibodies were positive for HIT. Her platelet count nadir was 60 × 0 3/mm 3 on day 5 and the platelet count rebounded after 8 days of fondaparinux therapy. No recurrent thrombotic or bleeding events were noted throughout her therapy. Anecdotal reports have shown that fondaparinux can be a useful agent to treat HIT with or without thrombosis.

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          Most cited references 29

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          A 14-year study of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.

          To determine the sites of thromboses (venous versus arterial circulation) that complicate the clinical course of immunemediated heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, and to determine the 30-day risk for thrombosis in patients who are initially recognized with isolated heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. We analyzed objectively documented thrombotic events that complicated the clinical course of 127 patients with serologically confirmed heparin-induced thrombocytopenia identified in one medical community over a 14-year period. We classified heparin-induced thrombocytopenia patients into two groups: patients recognized with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia only after a new thrombosis had occurred, and patients initially recognized with isolated heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. We determined the subsequent 30-day risk for thrombosis for the cohort of patients initially recognized with isolated thrombocytopenia. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia was associated with the development of new venous thrombotic events and arterial thrombotic events in 78 and 18 patients, respectively (ratio venous/arterial thrombosis = 4:1). Pulmonary embolism was the most common life-threatening thrombotic event, occurring in 25% of all patients. Approximately half of all heparin-induced thrombocytopenia patients were recognized only after they had a complicating thrombotic event. Of the remaining 62-patient cohort initially recognized with isolated thrombocytopenia, the subsequent 30-day risk of thrombosis was 52.8%. The risk of thrombosis did not differ whether the heparin had been discontinued alone or whether warfarin had been substituted for the heparin. Venous thrombosis complicates heparin-induced thrombocytopenia more frequently than does arterial thrombosis. The high risk of thrombosis in patients initially recognized with isolated thrombocytopenia suggests that conventional management approaches require reappraisal.
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            Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: recognition, treatment, and prevention: the Seventh ACCP Conference on Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy.

            This chapter about the recognition, treatment, and prevention of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is part of the Seventh ACCP Conference on Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy: Evidence Based Guidelines. Grade 1 recommendations are strong and indicate that the benefits do, or do not, outweigh risks, burden, and costs. Grade 2 suggests that individual patients' values may lead to different choices (for a full understanding of the grading, see Guyatt et al, CHEST 2004; 126:179S-187S). Among the key recommendations in this chapter are the following: For patients in whom the risk of HIT is considered to be > 0.1%, we recommend platelet count monitoring (Grade 1C). For patients who are receiving therapeutic-dose unfractionated heparin (UFH), we suggest at least every-other-day platelet count monitoring until day 14, or until UFH is stopped, whichever occurs first (Grade 2C). For patients who are receiving postoperative antithrombotic prophylaxis with UFH (HIT risk > 1%), we suggest at least every-other-day platelet count monitoring between postoperative days 4 to 14 (or until UFH is stopped, whichever occurs first) [Grade 2C]. For medical/obstetric patients who are receiving prophylactic-dose UFH, postoperative patients receiving prophylactic-dose low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), postoperative patients receiving intravascular catheter UFH "flushes," or medical/obstetrical patients receiving LMWH after first receiving UFH (risk, 0.1 to 1%), we suggest platelet count monitoring every 2 days or 3 days from day 4 to day 14, or until heparin is stopped, whichever occurs first (Grade 2C). For medical/obstetrical patients who are only receiving LMWH, or medical patients who are receiving only intravascular catheter UFH flushes (risk < 0.1%), we suggest clinicians do not use routine platelet count monitoring (Grade 2C). For patients with strongly suspected (or confirmed) HIT, whether or not complicated by thrombosis, we recommend use of an alternative anticoagulant, such as lepirudin (Grade 1C+), argatroban (Grade 1C), bivalirudin (Grade 2C), or danaparoid (Grade 1B). For patients with strongly suspected (or confirmed) HIT, we recommend routine ultrasonography of the lower-limb veins for investigation of deep venous thrombosis (Grade 1C); against the use of vitamin K antagonist (VKA) [coumarin] therapy until after the platelet count has substantially recovered; that the VKA antagonist be administered only during overlapping alternative anticoagulation (minimum 5-day overlap); and begun with low, maintenance doses (all Grade 2C). For patients receiving VKAs at the time of diagnosis of HIT, we recommend use of vitamin K (Grade 2C) [corrected] For patients with a history of HIT who are HIT antibody negative and require cardiac surgery, we recommend use of UFH (Grade 1C).
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              Impact of the patient population on the risk for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.

              The frequency of immune heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) varies among prospective studies. It is unknown whether this is caused by differences in the heparin preparations, the patient populations, or the types of serologic assay used to confirm the diagnosis. Seven hundred forty-four patients were studied from 3 different clinical treatment settings, as follows: unfractionated heparin (UFH) during or after cardiac surgery (n = 100), UFH after orthopedic surgery (n = 205), and low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) after orthopedic surgery (n = 439). Both an activation assay and an antigen assay were used to detect heparin-dependent IgG (HIT-IgG) antibodies. By activation assay, the frequency of HIT-IgG formation ranged from a low of 3.2% in orthopedic patients receiving LMWH to a high of 20% in cardiac patients receiving UFH; by antigen assay, the corresponding frequencies ranged from 7.5% to 50%. Both UFH use (P =.002) and cardiac surgery (P =.01) were more likely to be associated with HIT-IgG formation. However, among patients in whom HIT-IgG formed and who were administered UFH, the probability for HIT was higher among orthopedic patients than among cardiac patients (by activation assay: 52.6% compared with 5%; odds ratio, 21.1 [95% CI, 2.2-962.8]; P =.001; by antigen assay: 34.5% compared with 2.0%; odds ratio, 25.8 [95% CI, 3.2-1141]; P <.001). It is concluded that there is an unexpected dissociation between the frequency of HIT-IgG formation and the risk for HIT that is dependent on the patient population. HIT-IgG antibodies are more likely to form in patients who undergo cardiac surgery than in orthopedic patients, but among patients in whom antibodies do form, orthopedic patients are more likely to develop HIT. (Blood. 2000;96:1703-1708)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                June 2008
                June 2008
                : 4
                : 3
                : 653-657
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Clinical Thrombosis Center, Lovelace Medical Center Albuquerque, NM, USA
                [2 ]Department of Pharmacy, Singapore General Hospital Singapore
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Alex C Spyropoulos Clinical Thrombosis Center, Lovelace Medical Center, 500 Walter St, Ste 301, Albuquerque, NM 87102, USA Tel +1 505 262 7874 Fax +1 505 262 7040 Email alex.spyropoulos@ 123456abqhp.com
                Article
                2500261
                18827864
                © 2008 Spyropoulos et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.
                Categories
                Case Report

                Medicine

                fondaparinux, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia with thrombosis (hitt)

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