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      Advances in Solid-State Transformations of Coordination Bonds: From the Ball Mill to the Aging Chamber

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          Controlling the formation of coordination bonds is pivotal to the development of a plethora of functional metal-organic materials, ranging from coordination polymers, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to metallodrugs. The interest in and commercialization of such materials has created a need for more efficient, environmentally-friendly routes for making coordination bonds. Solid-state coordination chemistry is a versatile greener alternative to conventional synthesis, offering quantitative yields, enhanced stoichiometric and topological selectivity, access to a wider range of precursors, as well as to molecules and materials not readily accessible in solution or solvothermally. With a focus on mechanochemical, thermochemical and “accelerated aging” approaches to coordination polymers, including pharmaceutically-relevant materials and microporous MOFs, this review highlights the recent advances in solid-state coordination chemistry and techniques for understanding the underlying reaction mechanisms.

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          Exceptional chemical and thermal stability of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks.

          Twelve zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs; termed ZIF-1 to -12) have been synthesized as crystals by copolymerization of either Zn(II) (ZIF-1 to -4, -6 to -8, and -10 to -11) or Co(II) (ZIF-9 and -12) with imidazolate-type links. The ZIF crystal structures are based on the nets of seven distinct aluminosilicate zeolites: tetrahedral Si(Al) and the bridging O are replaced with transition metal ion and imidazolate link, respectively. In addition, one example of mixed-coordination imidazolate of Zn(II) and In(III) (ZIF-5) based on the garnet net is reported. Study of the gas adsorption and thermal and chemical stability of two prototypical members, ZIF-8 and -11, demonstrated their permanent porosity (Langmuir surface area = 1,810 m(2)/g), high thermal stability (up to 550 degrees C), and remarkable chemical resistance to boiling alkaline water and organic solvents.
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            Introduction to metal-organic frameworks.

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              A new zirconium inorganic building brick forming metal organic frameworks with exceptional stability.

              Porous crystals are strategic materials with industrial applications within petrochemistry, catalysis, gas storage, and selective separation. Their unique properties are based on the molecular-scale porous character. However, a principal limitation of zeolites and similar oxide-based materials is the relatively small size of the pores, typically in the range of medium-sized molecules, limiting their use in pharmaceutical and fine chemical applications. Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) provided a breakthrough in this respect. New MOFs appear at a high and an increasing pace, but the appearances of new, stable inorganic building bricks are rare. Here we present a new zirconium-based inorganic building brick that allows the synthesis of very high surface area MOFs with unprecedented stability. The high stability is based on the combination of strong Zr-O bonds and the ability of the inner Zr6-cluster to rearrange reversibly upon removal or addition of mu3-OH groups, without any changes in the connecting carboxylates. The weak thermal, chemical, and mechanical stability of most MOFs is probably the most important property that limits their use in large scale industrial applications. The Zr-MOFs presented in this work have the toughness needed for industrial applications; decomposition temperature above 500 degrees C and resistance to most chemicals, and they remain crystalline even after exposure to 10 tons/cm2 of external pressure.

                Author and article information

                Role: Academic Editor
                Molecules : A Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
                17 January 2017
                January 2017
                : 22
                : 1
                Department of Chemistry, McGill University, 801 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, QC H1P 1W1, Canada
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: cristina.mottillo@ (C.M.); tomislav.friscic@ (T.F.); Tel.: +1-514-398-3959 (T.F.); Fax: +1-514-398-3757 (T.F.)
                © 2017 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license (



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