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      The experiences of and attitudes toward non-pharmacological interventions for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder used in school settings: a systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research

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          Nonpharmacological interventions for ADHD: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of dietary and psychological treatments.

          Nonpharmacological treatments are available for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), although their efficacy remains uncertain. The authors undertook meta-analyses of the efficacy of dietary (restricted elimination diets, artificial food color exclusions, and free fatty acid supplementation) and psychological (cognitive training, neurofeedback, and behavioral interventions) ADHD treatments. Using a common systematic search and a rigorous coding and data extraction strategy across domains, the authors searched electronic databases to identify published randomized controlled trials that involved individuals who were diagnosed with ADHD (or who met a validated cutoff on a recognized rating scale) and that included an ADHD outcome. Fifty-four of the 2,904 nonduplicate screened records were included in the analyses. Two different analyses were performed. When the outcome measure was based on ADHD assessments by raters closest to the therapeutic setting, all dietary (standardized mean differences=0.21-0.48) and psychological (standardized mean differences=0.40-0.64) treatments produced statistically significant effects. However, when the best probably blinded assessment was employed, effects remained significant for free fatty acid supplementation (standardized mean difference=0.16) and artificial food color exclusion (standardized mean difference=0.42) but were substantially attenuated to nonsignificant levels for other treatments. Free fatty acid supplementation produced small but significant reductions in ADHD symptoms even with probably blinded assessments, although the clinical significance of these effects remains to be determined. Artificial food color exclusion produced larger effects but often in individuals selected for food sensitivities. Better evidence for efficacy from blinded assessments is required for behavioral interventions, neurofeedback, cognitive training, and restricted elimination diets before they can be supported as treatments for core ADHD symptoms.
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            Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

            Pelham, Wheeler, and Chronis (1998) reviewed the treatment literature on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and concluded behavioral parent training (BPT) and behavioral classroom management (BCM) were well-established treatments for children with ADHD. This review updates and extends the finding of the prior review. Studies conducted since the 1998 review were identified and coded based on standard criteria, and effect sizes were calculated where appropriate. The review reinforces the conclusions of Pelham, Wheeler, and Chronis regarding BPT and BCM. Further, the review shows that intensive peer-focused behavioral interventions implemented in recreational settings (e.g., summer programs) are also well-established. The results of this update are discussed in the context of the existing treatment literature on ADHD. Implications for practice guidelines are suggested, as are directions for future research.
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              A meta-analysis of behavioral treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

              There is currently controversy regarding the need for and the effectiveness of behavior modification for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) despite years of study and multiple investigations reporting beneficial effects of the intervention. A meta-analysis was conducted by identifying relevant behavioral treatment studies in the literature. One-hundred seventy-four studies of behavioral treatment were identified from 114 individual papers that were appropriate for the meta-analysis. Effect sizes varied by study design but not generally by other study characteristics, such as the demographic variables of the participants in the studies. Overall unweighted effect sizes in between group studies (.83), pre-post studies (.70), within group studies (2.64), and single subject studies (3.78) indicated that behavioral treatments are highly effective. Based on these results, there is strong and consistent evidence that behavioral treatments are effective for treating ADHD.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties
                Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties
                Informa UK Limited
                1363-2752
                1741-2692
                February 25 2016
                February 08 2016
                : 21
                : 1
                : 61-82
                Article
                10.1080/13632752.2016.1139296
                © 2016

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