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      Spelling and Meaning of Compounds in the Early School Years through Classroom Games: An Intervention Study

      Frontiers in Psychology

      Frontiers Media S.A.

      intervention, spelling, morphology, compounds, classroom games

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          Abstract

          The study aimed to evaluate the intervention effects on spelling and meaning of compounds by Greek students via group board games in classroom settings. The sample consisted of 60 pupils, who were attending the first and second grade of two primary schools in Greece. Each grade-class was divided into an intervention ( N = 29 children) and a control group ( N = 31 children). Before intervention, groups were evaluated by standardized tests of reading words/pseudowords, spelling words, and vocabulary. Students were also assessed on compound knowledge by a word analogy task, a meaning task and a spelling task. The experimental design of the intervention included a pre-test, a training program, and a post-test. The pre- and post-assessments consisted of the spelling and the meaning tasks entailing equally morphologically transparent and opaque compounds. The training program was based on word families ( N = 10 word families, 56 trained items, 5 sessions) and aimed to offer instruction of morphological decomposition and meaning of words. The findings showed that training was effective in enhancing the spelling and most notably the meaning of compounds. A closer inspection of intervention data in terms of morphological transparency, revealed that training group of first graders improved significantly both on transparent and opaque compounds, while the degree of gains was larger on opaque items for the second graders. These findings are consistent with the experimental literature and particularly optimistic for the literacy enhancement of typically developing children in regular classrooms.

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          Most cited references 57

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          Foundation literacy acquisition in European orthographies.

          Several previous studies have suggested that basic decoding skills may develop less effectively in English than in some other European orthographies. The origins of this effect in the early (foundation) phase of reading acquisition are investigated through assessments of letter knowledge, familiar word reading, and simple nonword reading in English and 12 other orthographies. The results confirm that children from a majority of European countries become accurate and fluent in foundation level reading before the end of the first school year. There are some exceptions, notably in French, Portuguese, Danish, and, particularly, in English. The effects appear not to be attributable to differences in age of starting or letter knowledge. It is argued that fundamental linguistic differences in syllabic complexity and orthographic depth are responsible. Syllabic complexity selectively affects decoding, whereas orthographic depth affects both word reading and nonword reading. The rate of development in English is more than twice as slow as in the shallow orthographies. It is hypothesized that the deeper orthographies induce the implementation of a dual (logographic + alphabetic) foundation which takes more than twice as long to establish as the single foundation required for the learning of a shallow orthography.
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            Vocabulary Development: A Morphological Analysis

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              Morphological Awareness and Learning to Read: A Cross-Language Perspective

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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                Division of Psychology, Department of Primary Education, University of Patras , Rion, Greece
                Author notes

                Edited by: Daniela Traficante, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Italy

                Reviewed by: Paola Angelelli, University of Salento, Italy; Dirk Koester, Bielefeld University, Germany

                *Correspondence: Styliani N. Tsesmeli, stsesmeli@ 123456upatras.gr

                This article was submitted to Language Sciences, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Psychol
                Front Psychol
                Front. Psychol.
                Frontiers in Psychology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-1078
                29 November 2017
                2017
                : 8
                5712978 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02071
                Copyright © 2017 Tsesmeli.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Counts
                Figures: 3, Tables: 7, Equations: 0, References: 61, Pages: 17, Words: 0
                Categories
                Psychology
                Original Research

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