Indium-111 tropolonate has recently been introduced as a new cell-labeling agent. It has the interesting property of labeling cells in plasma with high efficiency, and may therefore promote an improvement in viability of labeled cells. This paper describes our initial experience with In-111 tropolonate as a leukocyte label for abscess imaging. Pure populations of separated granulocytes, as well as crude leukocyte preparations, have been labeled. Of 101 studies performed, 51 were positive (no false positives) and 50 negatives, of which only two were false negatives. Localization in sites of inflammation was prominent and rapid. Of 36 positive studies, 27 were already positive at 40 min following injection and an additional nine at 3 hr. Of the other 15 positive studies, 11 were scanned for the first time at 3 hr, when they were positive. Granulocytes labeled with this agent in plasma showed minimal sequestration in lungs and liver, interpreted as indicating improved viability in comparison with cells displaying prolonged lung sequestration.