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      A Novel Regulatory Circuit “C/EBPα/miR-20a-5p/TOB2” Regulates Adipogenesis and Lipogenesis

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          Abstract

          Recent studies have identified growing importance of microRNAs as key regulators of adipocyte differentiation. We have previously reported that miR-20a-5p is able to induce adipogenesis of established adipogenic cell lines and bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). However, the molecular mechanisms by which miR-20a-5p controls adipogenesis and by which miR-20a-5p expression is regulated need to be further explored. In the current study we found that miR-20a-5p expression was induced during adipocyte differentiation from preadipocyte 3T3-L1 and was increased in epididymal white adipose tissue from either ob/ob mice or high fat diet-induced obese mice. Functional studies identified miR-20a-5p as a positive regulator of adipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 by using either synthetic mimics to supplement miR-20a-5p, or using synthetic inhibitor or sponge lentivirus to inactivate endogenous miR-20a-5p. Luciferase activity assay revealed that TOB2 is a novel target of miR-20a-5p and functional experiment demonstrated its negative regulatory role in adipocyte differentiation. Moreover, Tob2 overexpression significantly attenuated adipocyte formation induced by miR-20a-5p supplementation. In-depth investigation of mechanisms that govern miR-20a-5p expression clarified that C/EBPα transcriptionally activated miR-20a-5p expression via binding to the promoter of miR-20a-5p. Taken together, we conclude that a novel C/EBPα/miR-20a-5p/TOB2 circuit exists and regulates adipogenesis and lipogenesis.

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          Most cited references 19

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          PPAR gamma mediates high-fat diet-induced adipocyte hypertrophy and insulin resistance.

           K Murakami,  S Satoh,  C Ishii (1999)
          Agonist-induced activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) is known to cause adipocyte differentiation and insulin sensitivity. The biological role of PPAR gamma was investigated by gene targeting. Homozygous PPAR gamma-deficient embryos died at 10.5-11.5 dpc due to placental dysfunction. Quite unexpectedly, heterozygous PPAR gamma-deficient mice were protected from the development of insulin resistance due to adipocyte hypertrophy under a high-fat diet. These phenotypes were abrogated by PPAR gamma agonist treatment. Heterozygous PPAR gamma-deficient mice showed overexpression and hypersecretion of leptin despite the smaller size of adipocytes and decreased fat mass, which may explain these phenotypes at least in part. This study reveals a hitherto unpredicted role for PPAR gamma in high-fat diet-induced obesity due to adipocyte hypertrophy and insulin resistance, which requires both alleles of PPAR gamma.
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            MicroRNAs in metabolism

            Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have within the past decade emerged as key regulators of metabolic homoeostasis. Major tissues in intermediary metabolism important during development of the metabolic syndrome, such as β‐cells, liver, skeletal and heart muscle as well as adipose tissue, have all been shown to be affected by miRNAs. In the pancreatic β‐cell, a number of miRNAs are important in maintaining the balance between differentiation and proliferation (miR‐200 and miR‐29 families) and insulin exocytosis in the differentiated state is controlled by miR‐7, miR‐375 and miR‐335. MiR‐33a and MiR‐33b play crucial roles in cholesterol and lipid metabolism, whereas miR‐103 and miR‐107 regulates hepatic insulin sensitivity. In muscle tissue, a defined number of miRNAs (miR‐1, miR‐133, miR‐206) control myofibre type switch and induce myogenic differentiation programmes. Similarly, in adipose tissue, a defined number of miRNAs control white to brown adipocyte conversion or differentiation (miR‐365, miR‐133, miR‐455). The discovery of circulating miRNAs in exosomes emphasizes their importance as both endocrine signalling molecules and potentially disease markers. Their dysregulation in metabolic diseases, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis stresses their potential as therapeutic targets. This review emphasizes current ideas and controversies within miRNA research in metabolism.
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              Up-regulated expression of microRNA-143 in association with obesity in adipose tissue of mice fed high-fat diet.

              MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNA that post-transcriptionally regulates gene expression. miR-143 has been proposed to play a role in the differentiation of adipocytes in culture. However, the mechanism regulating the expression of miR-143 in adult adipose tissue during the development of obesity in vivo is unknown. Here in, we showed that the expression of miR-143 in the mesenteric fat was up-regulated in mice fed a high-fat diet. Increased miR-143 expression was associated with an elevated body weight and mesenteric fat weight. Furthermore, miR-143 levels were closely correlated with expression levels of adipocyte differentiation markers such as PPARgamma and aP2 as well as plasma levels of leptin, one of the important adipocytokines involved in insulin resistance. These findings provide the first evidence for the up-regulated expression of miR-143 in the mesenteric fat of high-fat diet-induced obese mice, which might contribute to the regulated expression of adipocyte genes involved in the pathophysiology of obesity.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
                Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
                Front. Endocrinol.
                Frontiers in Endocrinology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-2392
                08 January 2020
                2019
                : 10
                Affiliations
                1NHC Key Lab of Hormones and Development, Tianjin Key Lab of Metabolic Diseases, Chu Hsien-I Memorial Hospital & Institute of Endocrinology, Tianjin Medical University , Tianjin, China
                2Department of Microbiology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Tianjin Medical University , Tianjin, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Sandhya Srikant Visweswariah, Indian Institute of Science (IISc), India

                Reviewed by: Giulia Cantini, University of Florence, Italy; Dragos Cretoiu, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Romania

                *Correspondence: Xiaoxia Li lixx@ 123456tmu.edu.cn

                This article was submitted to Cellular Endocrinology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Endocrinology

                Article
                10.3389/fendo.2019.00894
                6960138
                Copyright © 2020 Zhou, Yang, Wang, Li, Li, Zhu, Li, Li and Wang.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 8, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 27, Pages: 14, Words: 5997
                Categories
                Endocrinology
                Original Research

                Endocrinology & Diabetes

                microrna, adipocyte differentiation, lipogenesis, tob2, c/ebpα

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