Devendra H. Dusane 1 , Jacob R. Brooks 1 , Devin Sindeldecker 1 , Casey W. Peters 1 , Anthony Li 1 , Nicholas R. Farrar 1 , Scott M. Diamond 1 , Cory S. Knecht 1 , Roger D. Plaut 2 , Craig Delury 3 , Sean S. Aiken 3 , Phillip A. Laycock 3 , Anne Sullivan 4 , Jeffrey F. Granger 4 , Paul Stoodley 1 , 4 , 5 , *
05 December 2019
Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) and Staphylococcus aureus (SA) are the major causative agents of acute and chronic infections. Antibiotic-loaded calcium sulfate beads (ALCSB) are used in the management of musculoskeletal infections such as periprosthetic joint infections (PJI). Methods: To determine whether the number and spatial distribution of ALCSB are important factors to totally eradicate biofilms, ALCSBs containing vancomycin and tobramycin were placed on 24 h agar lawn biofilms as a single bead in the center, or as 16 beads placed as four clusters of four, a ring around the edge and as a group in the center or 19 beads evenly across the plate. Bioluminescence was used to assess spatial metabolic activity in real time. Replica plating was used to assess viability. Results: For both strains antibiotics released from the beads completely killed biofilm bacteria in a zone immediately adjacent to each bead. However, for PA extended incubation revealed the emergence of resistant colony phenotypes between the zone of eradication and the background lawn. The rate of biofilm clearing was greater when the beads were distributed evenly over the plate. Conclusions: Both number and distribution pattern of ALCSB are important to ensure adequate coverage of antibiotics required to eradicate biofilms.