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      Anticancer Effects of Rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis L.) Extract and Rosemary Extract Polyphenols


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          Cancer cells display enhanced growth rates and a resistance to apoptosis. The ability of cancer cells to evade homeostasis and proliferate uncontrollably while avoiding programmed cell death/apoptosis is acquired through mutations to key signaling molecules, which regulate pathways involved in cell proliferation and survival. Compounds of plant origin, including food components, have attracted scientific attention for use as agents for cancer prevention and treatment. The exploration into natural products offers great opportunity to evaluate new anticancer agents as well as understand novel and potentially relevant mechanisms of action. Rosemary extract has been reported to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and anticancer properties. Rosemary extract contains many polyphenols with carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid found in highest concentrations. The present review summarizes the existing in vitro and in vivo studies focusing on the anticancer effects of rosemary extract and the rosemary extract polyphenols carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, and their effects on key signaling molecules.

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          Hallmarks of Cancer: The Next Generation

          The hallmarks of cancer comprise six biological capabilities acquired during the multistep development of human tumors. The hallmarks constitute an organizing principle for rationalizing the complexities of neoplastic disease. They include sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, and activating invasion and metastasis. Underlying these hallmarks are genome instability, which generates the genetic diversity that expedites their acquisition, and inflammation, which fosters multiple hallmark functions. Conceptual progress in the last decade has added two emerging hallmarks of potential generality to this list-reprogramming of energy metabolism and evading immune destruction. In addition to cancer cells, tumors exhibit another dimension of complexity: they contain a repertoire of recruited, ostensibly normal cells that contribute to the acquisition of hallmark traits by creating the "tumor microenvironment." Recognition of the widespread applicability of these concepts will increasingly affect the development of new means to treat human cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Stromal fibroblasts in cancer initiation and progression.

            It is widely accepted that the development of carcinoma--the most common form of human cancer--is due to the accumulation of somatic mutations in epithelial cells. The behaviour of carcinomas is also influenced by the tumour microenvironment, which includes extracellular matrix, blood vasculature, inflammatory cells and fibroblasts. Recent studies reveal that fibroblasts have a more profound influence on the development and progression of carcinomas than was previously appreciated. These new findings have important therapeutic implications.
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              Natural products in anticancer therapy.

              Many pharmaceutical agents have been discovered by screening natural products from plants, animals, marine organisms and microorganisms. Vincristine, irinotecan, etoposide and paclitaxel are examples of plant-derived compounds that are being employed in cancer treatment, and dactinomycin, bleomycin and doxorubicin are anticancer agents derived from microbial sources. Citarabine is an example of an anticancer agent originating from a marine source. Other agents originating from marine sources are bryostatin-1, aplidine, dolastatin 10 and ET-743, which have recently entered phase I and II clinical trials.

                Author and article information

                17 November 2016
                November 2016
                : 8
                : 11
                [1 ]Department of Health Sciences, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON L2S 3A1, Canada; jessy.moore@ 123456brocku.ca (J.M.); my11dq@ 123456brocku.ca (M.Y.)
                [2 ]Centre for Bone and Muscle Health, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON L2S 3A1, Canada
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: ltsiani@ 123456brocku.ca ; Tel.: +1-905-688-5550 (ext. 3881)
                © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).


                Nutrition & Dietetics
                rosemary extract,carnosic acid,rosmarinic acid,cancer,proliferation,survival,cell signaling


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