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      The hunting of the Src.

      Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology

      src-Family Kinases, Signal Transduction, genetics, enzymology, Neoplasms, Humans, Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic, Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic, Animals

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          Abstract

          The non-receptor tyrosine kinase Src is important for many aspects of cell physiology. The viral src gene was the first retroviral oncogene to be identified, and its cellular counterpart was the first proto-oncogene to be discovered in the vertebrate genome. Src has been important, not only as an object of study in itself, but also as an entry point into the molecular genetics of cancer.

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          Most cited references 104

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          Untangling the ErbB signalling network.

          When epidermal growth factor and its relatives bind the ErbB family of receptors, they trigger a rich network of signalling pathways, culminating in responses ranging from cell division to death, motility to adhesion. The network is often dysregulated in cancer and lends credence to the mantra that molecular understanding yields clinical benefit: over 25,000 women with breast cancer have now been treated with trastuzumab (Herceptin), a recombinant antibody designed to block the receptor ErbB2. Likewise, small-molecule enzyme inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies to ErbB1 are in advanced phases of clinical testing. What can this pathway teach us about translating basic science into clinical use?
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            Efficacy and safety of a specific inhibitor of the BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase in chronic myeloid leukemia.

            BCR-ABL is a constitutively activated tyrosine kinase that causes chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Since tyrosine kinase activity is essential to the transforming function of BCR-ABL, an inhibitor of the kinase could be an effective treatment for CML. We conducted a phase 1, dose-escalating trial of STI571 (formerly known as CGP 57148B), a specific inhibitor of the BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase. STI571 was administered orally to 83 patients with CML in the chronic phase in whom treatment with interferon alfa had failed. Patients were successively assigned to 1 of 14 doses ranging from 25 to 1000 mg per day. Adverse effects of STI571 were minimal; the most common were nausea, myalgias, edema, and diarrhea. A maximal tolerated dose was not identified. Complete hematologic responses were observed in 53 of 54 patients treated with daily doses of 300 mg or more and typically occurred in the first four weeks of therapy. Of the 54 patients treated with doses of 300 mg or more, cytogenetic responses occurred in 29, including 17 (31 percent of the 54 patients who received this dose) with major responses (0 to 35 percent of cells in metaphase positive for the Philadelphia chromosome); 7 of these patients had complete cytogenetic remissions. STI571 is well tolerated and has significant antileukemic activity in patients with CML in whom treatment with interferon alfa had failed. Our results provide evidence of the essential role of BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase activity in CML and demonstrate the potential for the development of anticancer drugs based on the specific molecular abnormality present in a human cancer.
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              STATs in oncogenesis.

              Since their discovery as key mediators of cytokine signaling, considerable progress has been made in defining the structure-function relationships of Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STATs). In addition to their central roles in normal cell signaling, recent studies have demonstrated that diverse oncoproteins can activate specific STATs (particularly Stat3 and Stat5) and that constitutively-activated STAT signaling directly contributes to oncogenesis. Furthermore, extensive surveys of primary tumors and cell lines derived from tumors indicate that inappropriate activation of specific STATs occurs with surprisingly high frequency in a wide variety of human cancers. Together, these findings provide compelling evidence that aberrant STAT activation associated with oncogenesis is not merely adventitious but instead contributes to the process of malignant transformation. These studies are beginning to reveal the molecular mechanisms leading to STAT activation in the context of oncogenesis, and candidate genes regulated by STATs that may contribute to oncogenesis are being identified. Recent studies suggest that activated STAT signaling participates in oncogenesis by stimulating cell proliferation and preventing apoptosis. This review presents the evidence for critical roles of STATs in oncogenesis and discusses the potential for development of novel cancer therapies based on mechanistic understanding of STAT signaling. Oncogene (2000).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                11389470
                10.1038/35073094

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