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Mitochondrial DNA haplogrouping of the Okhotsk people based on analysis of ancient DNA: an intermediate of gene flow from the continental Sakhalin people to the Ainu

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      Most cited references 26

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      Mathematical model for studying genetic variation in terms of restriction endonucleases.

       M Nei,  Jesse Li (1979)
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        Phylogeographic differentiation of mitochondrial DNA in Han Chinese.

        To characterize the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in Han Chinese from several provinces of China, we have sequenced the two hypervariable segments of the control region and the segment spanning nucleotide positions 10171-10659 of the coding region, and we have identified a number of specific coding-region mutations by direct sequencing or restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism tests. This allows us to define new haplogroups (clades of the mtDNA phylogeny) and to dissect the Han mtDNA pool on a phylogenetic basis, which is a prerequisite for any fine-grained phylogeographic analysis, the interpretation of ancient mtDNA, or future complete mtDNA sequencing efforts. Some of the haplogroups under study differ considerably in frequencies across different provinces. The southernmost provinces show more pronounced contrasts in their regional Han mtDNA pools than the central and northern provinces. These and other features of the geographical distribution of the mtDNA haplogroups observed in the Han Chinese make an initial Paleolithic colonization from south to north plausible but would suggest subsequent migration events in China that mainly proceeded from north to south and east to west. Lumping together all regional Han mtDNA pools into one fictive general mtDNA pool or choosing one or two regional Han populations to represent all Han Chinese is inappropriate for prehistoric considerations as well as for forensic purposes or medical disease studies.
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          Updating the East Asian mtDNA phylogeny: a prerequisite for the identification of pathogenic mutations.

          Knowledge about the world phylogeny of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is essential not only for evaluating the pathogenic role of specific mtDNA mutations but also for performing reliable association studies between mtDNA haplogroups and complex disorders. In the past few years, the main features of the East Asian portion of the mtDNA phylogeny have been determined on the basis of complete sequencing efforts, but representatives of several basal lineages were still lacking. Moreover, some recently published complete mtDNA sequences did apparently not fit into the known phylogenetic tree and conflicted with the established nomenclature. To refine the East Asian mtDNA tree and resolve data conflicts, we first completely sequenced 20 carefully selected mtDNAs--likely representatives of novel sub-haplogroups--and then, in order to distinguish diagnostic mutations of novel haplogroups from private variants, we applied a 'motif-search' procedure to a large sample collection. The novel information was incorporated into an updated East Asian mtDNA tree encompassing more than 1000 (near-) complete mtDNA sequences. A reassessment of the mtDNA data from a series of disease studies testified to the usefulness of such a refined mtDNA tree in evaluating the pathogenicity of mtDNA mutations. In particular, the claimed pathogenic role of mutations G3316A, T3394C, A4833G and G15497A appears to be most questionable as those initial claims were derived from anecdotal findings rather than e.g. appropriate association studies. Following a guideline based on the phylogenetic knowledge as proposed here could help avoiding similar problems in the future.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Anthropological Science
            AS
            Anthropological Society of Nippon
            1348-8570
            0918-7960
            2009
            2009
            : 117
            : 3
            : 171-180
            10.1537/ase.081202
            © 2009

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