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      Systematic Fluid Assessment in Haemodialysis: Development and Validation of A Decision Aid

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          About a third of patients undergoing haemodialysis have poorly controlled fluid status, which may affect survival. Clinical assessment is subjective and imprecise, which has led to the increasing use of devices based on bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS). However, BIS cannot provide a simple target applicable to all patients. Our aim was to develop and validate a decision aid combining clinical assessment of fluid status with information from BIS in target weight determination.


          The decision aid was based on empirical experience and a literature review identifying physiological parameters already used in the clinical assessment of fluid status. Content validity was established by patient representatives, interdisciplinary stakeholders and external experts, who assessed item relevance and comprehensiveness. Reliability was assessed by inter‐rater agreement analysis between nurses assessing typical patient cases.


          The decision aid for Recognition and Correction of Volume Alterations (RECOVA) consists of three parts (1) a scoring system; (2) thresholds and triggers; (3) a decision aid algorithm. Agreement between raters in the assessment of symptoms was almost perfect, with Intraclass Correlation Coefficient > 0.90. Agreement in clinical response was only fair, but increased to moderate, with training and self‐reported confidence.


          RECOVA may enable systematic clinical assessment of fluid status, facilitating early recognition of fluid alterations, and incorporation of bioimpedance into target weight management. However, implementation into clinical practice will require training of staff. Clinical intervention studies are required to evaluate if RECOVA facilitates response to and correction of recognised fluid alterations.

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          Towards improved cardiovascular management: the necessity of combining blood pressure and fluid overload.

          Hypertension and fluid overload (FO) are well-recognized problems in the chronic kidney disease (CKD) population. While the prevalence of hypertension is well documented, little is known about the severity of FO in this population. A new bioimpedance spectroscopy device (BCM-Body Composition Monitor) was selected that allows quantitative determination of the deviation in hydration status from normal ranges (DeltaHS). Pre-dialysis systolic blood pressure (BPsys) and DeltaHS was analysed in 500 haemodialysis patients from eight dialysis centres. A graphical tool (HRP-hydration reference plot) was devised allowing DeltaHS to be combined with measurements of BPsys enabling comparison with a matched healthy population (n = 1244). Nineteen percent of patients (n = 95) were found to have normal BPsys and DeltaHS in the normal range. Approximately one-third of patients (n = 133) exhibited reasonable control of BPsys and fluids (BPsys 150 mmHg) with a concomitant DeltaHS >2.5 L (possible volume-dependent hypertension). In contrast, 13% of patients (n = 69) were hypertensive with DeltaHS <1.1 L (possible essential hypertension). In 10% of patients (n = 52), BPsys <140 mmHg was recorded despite DeltaHS exceeding 2.5 L. Our study illustrated the wide variability in BPsys regardless of the degree of DeltaHS. The HRP provides an invaluable tool for classifying patients in terms of BPsys and DeltaHS and the proximity of these parameters to reference ranges. This represents an important step towards more objective choice of strategies for the optimal treatment of hypertension and FO. Further studies are required to assess the prognostic and therapeutic role of the HRP.
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            Effect of fluid management guided by bioimpedance spectroscopy on cardiovascular parameters in hemodialysis patients: a randomized controlled trial.

            Fluid overload is the main determinant of hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy in hemodialysis patients. However, assessment of fluid overload can be difficult in clinical practice. We investigated whether objective measurement of fluid overload with bioimpedance spectroscopy is helpful in optimizing fluid status. Prospective, randomized, and controlled study. 156 hemodialysis patients from 2 centers were randomly assigned to 2 groups. Dry weight was assessed by routine clinical practice and fluid overload was assessed by bioimpedance spectroscopy in both groups. In the intervention group (n = 78), fluid overload information was provided to treating physicians and used to adjust fluid removal during dialysis. In the control group (n = 78), fluid overload information was not provided to treating physicians and fluid removal during dialysis was adjusted according to usual clinical practice. The primary outcome was regression of left ventricular mass index during a 1-year follow-up. Improvement in blood pressure and left atrial volume were the main secondary outcomes. Changes in arterial stiffness parameters were additional outcomes. Fluid overload was assessed twice monthly in the intervention group and every 3 months in the control group before the mid- or end-week hemodialysis session. Echocardiography, 48-hour ambulatory blood pressure measurement, and pulse wave analysis were performed at baseline and 12 months. Baseline fluid overload parameters in the intervention and control groups were 1.45 ± 1.11 (SD) and 1.44 ± 1.12 L, respectively (P = 0.7). Time-averaged fluid overload values significantly decreased in the intervention group (mean difference, -0.5 ± 0.8 L), but not in the control group (mean difference, 0.1 ± 1.2 L), and the mean difference between groups was -0.5 L (95% CI, -0.8 to -0.2; P = 0.001). Left ventricular mass index regressed from 131 ± 36 to 116 ± 29 g/m(2) (P < 0.001) in the intervention group, but not in the control group (121 ± 35 to 120 ± 30 g/m(2); P = 0.9); mean difference between groups was -10.2 g/m(2) (95% CI, -19.2 to -1.17 g/m(2); P = 0.04). In addition, values for left atrial volume index, blood pressure, and arterial stiffness parameters decreased in the intervention group, but not in the control group. Ambulatory blood pressure data were not available for all patients. Assessment of fluid overload with bioimpedance spectroscopy provides better management of fluid status, leading to regression of left ventricular mass index, decrease in blood pressure, and improvement in arterial stiffness. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Chronic Fluid Overload and Mortality in ESRD.

              Sustained fluid overload (FO) is considered a major cause of hypertension, heart failure, and mortality in patients with ESRD on maintenance hemodialysis. However, there has not been a cohort study investigating the relationship between chronic exposure to FO and mortality in this population. We studied the relationship of baseline and cumulative FO exposure over 1 year with mortality in 39,566 patients with incident ESRD in a large dialysis network in 26 countries using whole-body bioimpedance spectroscopy to assess fluid status. Analyses were applied across three discrete systolic BP (syst-BP) categories ( 160 mmHg), with nonoverhydrated patients with syst-BP=130-160 mmHg as the reference category; >200,000 FO measurements were performed over follow-up. Baseline FO value predicted excess risk of mortality across syst-BP categories ( 160 mmHg: HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.19 to 1.42; all P 160 mmHg: HR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.39 to 1.90). In conclusion, chronic exposure to FO in ESRD is a strong risk factor for death across discrete BP categories. Whether treatment policies that account for fluid status monitoring are preferable to policies that account solely for predialysis BP measurements remains to be tested in a clinical trial.

                Author and article information

                J Ren Care
                J Ren Care
                Journal of Renal Care
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                04 November 2019
                March 2020
                : 46
                : 1 ( doiID: 10.1111/jorc.v46.1 )
                : 52-61
                [ 1 ] Department of Medical Sciences Uppsala University Uppsala Sweden
                [ 2 ] Department of Renal Medicine Leeds Teaching Hospitals Trust Leeds UK
                [ 3 ] Department of Health and Caring Sciences University of Gävle Gävle Sweden
                [ 4 ] Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences Uppsala University Uppsala Sweden
                Author notes
                [* ] CORRESPONDENCE Jenny Stenberg, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Akademiska sjukhuset, Entrance 40, 751 85 Uppsala, Sweden. Tel: +46 18 611 42 75,

                Email: jenny.stenberg@

                © 2019 The Authors. Journal of Renal Care published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Dialysis & Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association

                This is an open access article under the terms of the License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 3, Pages: 10, Words: 5684
                Funded by: Uppsala County Council , open-funder-registry 10.13039/501100009230;
                Original Research
                Original Research
                Custom metadata
                March 2020
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:5.7.5 mode:remove_FC converted:18.02.2020


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