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      Interdependent networks: Reducing the coupling strength leads to a change from a first to second order percolation transition

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          Abstract

          We study a system composed from two interdependent networks A and B, where a fraction of the nodes in network A depends on the nodes of network B and a fraction of the nodes in network B depends on the nodes of network A. Due to the coupling between the networks when nodes in one network fail they cause dependent nodes in the other network to also fail. This invokes an iterative cascade of failures in both networks. When a critical fraction of nodes fail the iterative process results in a percolation phase transition that completely fragments both networks. We show both analytically and numerically that reducing the coupling between the networks leads to a change from a first order percolation phase transition to a second order percolation transition at a critical point. The scaling of the percolation order parameter near the critical point is characterized by the critical exponent beta=1.

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          Most cited references 4

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          Emergence of scaling in random networks

          Systems as diverse as genetic networks or the world wide web are best described as networks with complex topology. A common property of many large networks is that the vertex connectivities follow a scale-free power-law distribution. This feature is found to be a consequence of the two generic mechanisms that networks expand continuously by the addition of new vertices, and new vertices attach preferentially to already well connected sites. A model based on these two ingredients reproduces the observed stationary scale-free distributions, indicating that the development of large networks is governed by robust self-organizing phenomena that go beyond the particulars of the individual systems.
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            Statistical mechanics of complex networks

            Complex networks describe a wide range of systems in nature and society, much quoted examples including the cell, a network of chemicals linked by chemical reactions, or the Internet, a network of routers and computers connected by physical links. While traditionally these systems were modeled as random graphs, it is increasingly recognized that the topology and evolution of real networks is governed by robust organizing principles. Here we review the recent advances in the field of complex networks, focusing on the statistical mechanics of network topology and dynamics. After reviewing the empirical data that motivated the recent interest in networks, we discuss the main models and analytical tools, covering random graphs, small-world and scale-free networks, as well as the interplay between topology and the network's robustness against failures and attacks.
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              Resilience of the Internet to random breakdowns

              A common property of many large networks, including the Internet, is that the connectivity of the various nodes follows a scale-free power-law distribution, P(k)=ck^-a. We study the stability of such networks with respect to crashes, such as random removal of sites. Our approach, based on percolation theory, leads to a general condition for the critical fraction of nodes, p_c, that need to be removed before the network disintegrates. We show that for a<=3 the transition never takes place, unless the network is finite. In the special case of the Internet (a=2.5), we find that it is impressively robust, where p_c is approximately 0.99.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                22 April 2010
                Article
                10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.048701
                1004.3989

                http://arxiv.org/licenses/nonexclusive-distrib/1.0/

                Custom metadata
                physics.data-an cond-mat.dis-nn physics.soc-ph

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