ABSTRACT Filling gaps in species distributions is instrumental to increase our understanding of natural environments and underpin efficient conservation policies. For many hyperdiverse groups, this knowledge is hampered by insufficient taxonomic information. Herein we provide 415 new distribution records for the parasitic wasp subfamily Cryptinae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) in the Neotropical region, based on examination of material from 20 biological collections worldwide. Records span across 227 sites in 24 countries and territories, and represent 175 species from 53 genera. Of these, 102 represent new country records for 74 species. A distinct "road pattern" was detected in the records, at least within Brazil, where 50.2% of the records fall within 10 km of federal roads, an area that occupies only 11.9% of the surface of the country. The results help to identify priority areas that remain poorly sampled and should be targeted for future collecting efforts, and highlight the importance of biological collections in yielding new information about species distributions that is orders of magnitude above what is provided in most individual studies.