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      Optimization of the energy for Breast monochromatic absorption X-ray Computed Tomography

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          Abstract

          The limits of mammography have led to an increasing interest on possible alternatives such as the breast Computed Tomography (bCT). The common goal of all X-ray imaging techniques is to achieve the optimal contrast resolution, measured through the Contrast to Noise Ratio (CNR), while minimizing the radiological risks, quantified by the dose. Both dose and CNR depend on the energy and the intensity of the X-rays employed for the specific imaging technique. Some attempts to determine an optimal energy for bCT have suggested the range 22 keV–34 keV, some others instead suggested the range 50 keV–60 keV depending on the parameters considered in the study. Recent experimental works, based on the use of monochromatic radiation and breast specimens, show that energies around 32 keV give better image quality respect to setups based on higher energies. In this paper we report a systematic study aiming at defining the range of energies that maximizes the CNR at fixed dose in bCT. The study evaluates several compositions and diameters of the breast and includes various reconstruction algorithms as well as different dose levels. The results show that a good compromise between CNR and dose is obtained using energies around 28 keV.

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          Most cited references 58

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          Integration of 3D digital mammography with tomosynthesis for population breast-cancer screening (STORM): a prospective comparison study.

          Digital breast tomosynthesis with 3D images might overcome some of the limitations of conventional 2D mammography for detection of breast cancer. We investigated the effect of integrated 2D and 3D mammography in population breast-cancer screening.
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            The ASTRA Toolbox: A platform for advanced algorithm development in electron tomography.

            We present the ASTRA Toolbox as an open platform for 3D image reconstruction in tomography. Most of the software tools that are currently used in electron tomography offer limited flexibility with respect to the geometrical parameters of the acquisition model and the algorithms used for reconstruction. The ASTRA Toolbox provides an extensive set of fast and flexible building blocks that can be used to develop advanced reconstruction algorithms, effectively removing these limitations. We demonstrate this flexibility, the resulting reconstruction quality, and the computational efficiency of this toolbox by a series of experiments, based on experimental dual-axis tilt series.
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              Systematic review: the long-term effects of false-positive mammograms.

              Although abnormal screening mammograms deleteriously affect the psychological well-being of women during the time immediately surrounding the tests, their long-term effects are poorly understood. To characterize the long-term effects of false-positive screening mammograms on the behavior and well-being of women 40 years of age or older. English-language studies from the MEDLINE, Web of Science, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and ERIC databases through August 2006. Studies were identified that examined the effects of false-positive results of routine screening mammography on women's behavior, well-being, or beliefs. Two investigators independently coded study characteristics, quality, and effect sizes. 23 eligible studies (n = 313,967) were identified. A random-effects meta-analysis showed that U.S. women who received false-positive results on screening mammography were more likely to return for routine screening than those who received normal results (risk ratio, 1.07 [95% CI, 1.02 to 1.12]). The effect was not statistically significant among European women (risk ratio, 0.97 [CI, 0.93 to 1.01]), and Canadian women were less likely to return for routine screening because of false-positive results (risk ratio, 0.63 [CI, 0.50 to 0.80]). Women who received false-positive results conducted more frequent breast self-examinations and had higher, but not apparently pathologically elevated, levels of distress and anxiety and thought more about breast cancer than did those with normal results. Correlational study designs, a small number of studies, a lack of clinical validation for many measures, and possible heterogeneity. Some women with false-positive results on mammography may have differences in whether they return for mammography, occurrence of breast self-examinations, and levels of anxiety compared with women with normal results. Future research should examine how false-positive results on mammography affect other outcomes, such as trust and health care use.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                pasquale.delogu@unisi.it
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                11 September 2019
                11 September 2019
                2019
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1757 4641, GRID grid.9024.f, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, della Terra e dell’Ambiente, , Università di Siena, ; Siena, Italy
                [2 ]GRID grid.470216.6, I.N.F.N. Sezione di Pisa, ; Pisa, Italy
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1941 4308, GRID grid.5133.4, Dipartimento di Fisica, , Università di Trieste, ; Trieste, Italy
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1760 7175, GRID grid.470223.0, I.N.F.N. Sezione di Trieste, ; Trieste, Italy
                [5 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0790 385X, GRID grid.4691.a, Dipartimento di Fisica, , Università di Napoli Federico II, ; Napoli, Italy
                [6 ]GRID grid.470211.1, I.N.F.N. Sezione di Napoli, ; Napoli, Italy
                [7 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1757 2064, GRID grid.8484.0, Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze dalla Terra, , Università di Ferrara, ; Ferrara, Italy
                [8 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1765 4414, GRID grid.470200.1, I.N.F.N. Sezione di Ferrara, ; Ferrara, Italy
                [9 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2097 9138, GRID grid.11450.31, Dipartimento di Chimica e Farmacia, , Università di Sassari, ; Sassari, Italy
                [10 ]GRID grid.470195.e, I.N.F.N. Sezione di Cagliari, ; Cagliari, Italy
                Article
                49351
                10.1038/s41598-019-49351-2
                6739417
                31511550
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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                computed tomography, applied physics, biological physics

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