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      Body Mass Index and Body Composition in Adolescents Treated with Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Analogue Triptorelin Depot for Central Precocious Puberty: Data at Near Final Height

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          Background/Aim: In children with central precocious puberty (CPP), gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue treatment has been associated with an increase in body mass index (BMI). We evaluated BMI and body composition in adolescents treated with GnRH analogue at their near final height to assess the long-term effects of therapy on these parameters. Patients and Methods: We studied 20 patients (14.8 ± 1.6 years; 17 females) previously treated with triptorelin depot for CPP (3.75 mg/28 days) from 8.1 ± 0.8 to 11.5 ± 0.8 years. 23 healthy adolescents with normal onset of puberty (14.7 ± 2.1 years, 19 females) were the controls. BMI and body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) were assessed. Results: Patients reached their near adult height (–0.5 ± 1.1 standard deviation score (SDS)); the girls were menstruating and the majority (15/17) had regular cycles, the boys showed normal testicular function. BMI was unchanged from the start of GnRH analogue therapy (0.4 ± 1.0 SDS) to near adult height (0.2 ± 1.0 SDS, p = NS vs. 0). Total fat mass (TFM) was significantly increased (16,144 ± 8,065 g; controls 10,712.1 ± 4,120.4 g, p < 0.02); glucose homeostasis and lipid profile corresponded to reference ranges. Conclusions: GnRH analogue therapy did not show long-term detrimental effects on BMI, but it may increase TFM, suggesting that body composition should be monitored till adulthood.

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          Most cited references 17

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          The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in various populations.

          The insulin resistance/metabolic syndrome is characterized by the variable co-existence of hyperinsulinemia, obesity, dyslipidemia (small dense low-density lipoprotein, hypertriglyceridemia, and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), and hypertension. The pathogenesis of the syndrome has multiple origins. However, obesity and sedentary lifestyle coupled with diet and still largely unknown genetic factors clearly interact to produce the syndrome. This multifactorial and complex trait of metabolic syndrome leads to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The scope of this review is to examine the differences in prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in various groups (eg, according to age, sex, ethnicity, social status, or presence of obesity) that could help with the better understanding of the pathogenesis of this syndrome. This review also considers the impact of metabolic syndrome on cardiovascular disease.
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            Clinical review: Identifying children at risk for polycystic ovary syndrome.

            Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) appears to arise as a complex trait with contributions from both heritable and nonheritable factors. Polygenic influences appear to account for about 70% of the variance in pathogenesis. In view of this evidence for congenital contributions to the syndrome, childhood manifestations may be expected. The objective has been to review the evidence that risk factors for PCOS can be recognized in childhood. This study consisted of screening of the PCOS literature for articles pertaining to potential childhood and adolescent antecedents. Congenital virilizing disorders; above average or low birth weight for gestational age; premature adrenarche, particularly exaggerated adrenarche; atypical sexual precocity; or intractable obesity with acanthosis nigricans, metabolic syndrome, and pseudo-Cushing syndrome or pseudo-acromegaly in early childhood have been identified as independent prepubertal risk factors for the development of PCOS. During adolescence, PCOS may masquerade as physiological adolescent anovulation. Asymptomatic adolescents with a polycystic ovary occasionally (8%) have subclinical PCOS but often (42%) have a subclinical PCOS type of ovarian dysfunction, the prognosis for which is unclear. Identifying children at risk for PCOS offers the prospect of eventually preventing some of the long-term complications associated with this syndrome once our understanding of the basis of the disorder improves.
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              Minireview: the neuroendocrine regulation of puberty: is the time ripe for a systems biology approach?

              The initiation of mammalian puberty requires an increase in pulsatile release of GnRH from the hypothalamus. This increase is brought about by coordinated changes in transsynaptic and glial-neuronal communication. As the neuronal and glial excitatory inputs to the GnRH neuronal network increase, the transsynaptic inhibitory tone decreases, leading to the pubertal activation of GnRH secretion. The excitatory neuronal systems most prevalently involved in this process use glutamate and the peptide kisspeptin for neurotransmission/neuromodulation, whereas the most important inhibitory inputs are provided by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic and opiatergic neurons. Glial cells, on the other hand, facilitate GnRH secretion via growth factor-dependent cell-cell signaling. Coordination of this regulatory neuronal-glial network may require a hierarchical arrangement. One level of coordination appears to be provided by a host of unrelated genes encoding proteins required for cell-cell communication. A second, but overlapping, level might be provided by a second tier of genes engaged in specific cell functions required for productive cell-cell interaction. A third and higher level of control involves the transcriptional regulation of these subordinate genes by a handful of upper echelon genes that, operating within the different neuronal and glial subsets required for the initiation of the pubertal process, sustain the functional integration of the network. The existence of functionally connected genes controlling the pubertal process is consistent with the concept that puberty is under genetic control and that the genetic underpinnings of both normal and deranged puberty are polygenic rather than specified by a single gene. The availability of improved high-throughput techniques and computational methods for global analysis of mRNAs and proteins will allow us to not only initiate the systematic identification of the different components of this neuroendocrine network but also to define their functional interactions.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                June 2009
                29 January 2009
                : 89
                : 4
                : 441-447
                aAdolescent Medicine, II Pediatric Division, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Pediatrics, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana, Pisa, bLaboratory of Pediatric Endocrinology and BoNetwork, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, cLaboratory of Reproductive Endocrinology, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Pediatrics, and dNuclear Medicine, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana, Pisa, Italy
                197862 Neuroendocrinology 2009;89:441–447
                © 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 3, References: 39, Pages: 7
                GnRH, Gonadotropins, Gonadal Steroids and Reproduction


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