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      Comparison of strain parameters in dyssynchronous heart failure between speckle tracking echocardiography vendor systems


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          Although mechanical dyssynchrony parameters derived by speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) may predict response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), comparability of parameters derived with different STE vendors is unknown.


          In the MARC study, echocardiographic images of heart failure patients obtained before CRT implantation were prospectively analysed with vendor specific STE software (GE EchoPac and Philips QLAB) and vendor-independent software (TomTec 2DCPA). Response was defined as change in left ventricular (LV) end-systolic volume between examination before and six-months after CRT implantation. Basic longitudinal strain and mechanical dyssynchrony parameters (septal to lateral wall delay (SL-delay), septal systolic rebound stretch (SRSsept), and systolic stretch index (SSI)) were obtained from either separate septal and lateral walls, or total LV apical four chamber. Septal strain patterns were categorized in three types. The coefficient of variation and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) were analysed. Dyssynchrony parameters were associated with CRT response using univariate regression analysis and C-statistics.


          Two-hundred eleven patients were analysed. GE-cohort ( n = 123): age 68 years (interquartile range (IQR): 61–73), 67% male, QRS-duration 177 ms (IQR: 160–192), LV ejection fraction: 26 ± 7%. Philips-cohort ( n = 88): age 67 years (IQR: 59–74), 60% male, QRS-duration: 179 ms (IQR: 166–193), LV ejection fraction: 27 ± 8. LV derived peak strain was comparable in the GE- (GE: -7.3 ± 3.1%, TomTec: −6.4 ± 2.8%, ICC: 0.723) and Philips-cohort (Philips: −7.7 ± 2.7%, TomTec: −7.7 ± 3.3%, ICC: 0.749). SL-delay showed low ICC values (GE vs. TomTec: 0.078 and Philips vs. TomTec: 0.025). ICC’s of SRSsept and SSI were higher but only weak (GE vs. TomTec: SRSsept: 0.470, SSI: 0.467) (Philips vs. QLAB: SRSsept: 0.419, SSI: 0.421). Comparability of septal strain patterns was low (Cohen’s kappa, GE vs. TomTec: 0.221 and Philips vs. TomTec: 0.279). Septal strain patterns, SRSsept and SSI were associated with changes in LV end-systolic volume for all vendors. SRSsept and SSI had relative varying C-statistic values (range: 0.530–0.705) and different cut-off values between vendors.


          Although global longitudinal strain analysis showed fair comparability, assessment of dyssynchrony parameters was vendor specific and not applicable outside the context of the implemented platform. While the standardization taskforce took an important step for global peak strain, further standardization of STE is still warranted.

          Electronic supplementary material

          The online version of this article (10.1186/s12947-017-0116-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Most cited references23

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          Definitions for a common standard for 2D speckle tracking echocardiography: consensus document of the EACVI/ASE/Industry Task Force to standardize deformation imaging.

          Recognizing the critical need for standardization in strain imaging, in 2010, the European Association of Echocardiography (now the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging, EACVI) and the American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) invited technical representatives from all interested vendors to participate in a concerted effort to reduce intervendor variability of strain measurement. As an initial product of the work of the EACVI/ASE/Industry initiative to standardize deformation imaging, we prepared this technical document which is intended to provide definitions, names, abbreviations, formulas, and procedures for calculation of physical quantities derived from speckle tracking echocardiography and thus create a common standard.
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            Targeted left ventricular lead placement to guide cardiac resynchronization therapy: the TARGET study: a randomized, controlled trial.

            This study sought to assess the impact of targeted left ventricular (LV) lead placement on outcomes of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Placement of the LV lead to the latest sites of contraction and away from the scar confers the best response to CRT. We conducted a randomized, controlled trial to compare a targeted approach to LV lead placement with usual care. A total of 220 patients scheduled for CRT underwent baseline echocardiographic speckle-tracking 2-dimensional radial strain imaging and were then randomized 1:1 into 2 groups. In group 1 (TARGET [Targeted Left Ventricular Lead Placement to Guide Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy]), the LV lead was positioned at the latest site of peak contraction with an amplitude of >10% to signify freedom from scar. In group 2 (control) patients underwent standard unguided CRT. Patients were classified by the relationship of the LV lead to the optimal site as concordant (at optimal site), adjacent (within 1 segment), or remote (≥2 segments away). The primary endpoint was a ≥15% reduction in LV end-systolic volume at 6 months. Secondary endpoints were clinical response (≥1 improvement in New York Heart Association functional class), all-cause mortality, and combined all-cause mortality and heart failure-related hospitalization. The groups were balanced at randomization. In the TARGET group, there was a greater proportion of responders at 6 months (70% vs. 55%, p = 0.031), giving an absolute difference in the primary endpoint of 15% (95% confidence interval: 2% to 28%). Compared with controls, TARGET patients had a higher clinical response (83% vs. 65%, p = 0.003) and lower rates of the combined endpoint (log-rank test, p = 0.031). Compared with standard CRT treatment, the use of speckle-tracking echocardiography to the target LV lead placement yields significantly improved response and clinical status and lower rates of combined death and heart failure-related hospitalization. (Targeted Left Ventricular Lead Placement to Guide Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy [TARGET] study); ISRCTN19717943). Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              ACCF/HRS/AHA/ASE/HFSA/SCAI/SCCT/SCMR 2013 appropriate use criteria for implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization therapy: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation appropriate use criteria task force, Heart Rhythm Society, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, Heart Failure Society of America, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, and Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance.


                Author and article information

                +31-887550397 , w.m.vaneverdingen@umcutrecht.nl
                Cardiovasc Ultrasound
                Cardiovasc Ultrasound
                Cardiovascular Ultrasound
                BioMed Central (London )
                18 October 2017
                18 October 2017
                : 15
                [1 ]ISNI 0000000090126352, GRID grid.7692.a, Department of Cardiology, , University Medical Centre Utrecht, ; P.O. Box 855500, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands
                [2 ]Department of Cardiology, Thoraxcenter, University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
                [3 ]GRID grid.412966.e, Department of Cardiology, , Maastricht University Medical Centre, ; Maastricht, The Netherlands
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0435 165X, GRID grid.16872.3a, Department of Cardiology, , VU University Medical Centre, ; Amsterdam, The Netherlands
                [5 ]ISNI 0000000404654431, GRID grid.5650.6, Department of Cardiology, , Academic Medical Centre, ; Amsterdam, The Netherlands
                [6 ]ISNI 0000000120346234, GRID grid.5477.1, Department of Medical Physiology, , University of Utrecht, ; Utrecht, The Netherlands
                © The Author(s). 2017

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funded by: Hartstichting (NL)
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100006020, Center for Translational Molecular Medicine;
                Award ID: grant 01C-203
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2017

                Cardiovascular Medicine
                speckle tracking echocardiography,cardiac resynchronization therapy,strain,dyssynchrony,heart failure,vendor comparison,response


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