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      Aquimarina sp. Associated With a Cuticular Disease of Cultured Larval Palinurid and Scyllarid Lobsters

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          Abstract

          Shell (cuticular) disease manifests in various forms and affects many crustaceans, including lobsters. Outbreaks of white leg disease (WLD) with distinct signs of pereiopod tissue whitening and death have been observed in cultured larvae (phyllosomas) of ornate spiny lobster Panulirus ornatus, eastern rock lobster Sagmariasus verreauxi, and slipper lobster Thenus australiensis. This study aimed to characterise and identify the causative agent of WLD through morphological and molecular (16S rRNA gene and whole genome sequencing) analysis, experimental infection of damaged/undamaged P. ornatus and T. australiensis phyllosomas, and bacterial community analysis (16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing) of P. ornatus phyllosomas presenting with WLD during an outbreak. Bacterial communities of WLD-affected pereiopods showed low bacterial diversity and dominant abundance of Aquimarina spp. compared to healthy pereiopods, which were more diverse and enriched with Sulfitobacter spp. 16S rRNA gene Sanger sequencing of cultures from disease outbreaks identified the dominant bacterial isolate (TRL1) as a Gram-negative, long non-flagellated rod with 100% sequence identity to Aquimarina hainanensis. Aquimarina sp. TRL1 was demonstrated through comparative genome analysis (99.99% OrthoANIu) as the bacterium reisolated from experimentally infected phyllosomas presenting with typical signs of WLD. Pereiopod damage was a major predisposing factor to WLD. Histopathological examination of WLD-affected pereiopods showed masses of internalised bacteria and loss of structural integrity, suggesting that Aquimarina sp. TRL1 could enter the circulatory system and cause death by septicaemia. Aquimarina sp. TRL1 appears to have important genomic traits (e.g., tissue-degrading enzymes, gliding motility, and aggregate-promoting factors) implicated in the pathogenicity of this bacterium. We have shown that Aquimarina sp. TRL1 is the aetiological agent of WLD in cultured Palinurid and Scyllarid phyllosomas and that damaged pereiopods are a predisposing factor to WLD.

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          Geneious Basic: An integrated and extendable desktop software platform for the organization and analysis of sequence data

          Summary: The two main functions of bioinformatics are the organization and analysis of biological data using computational resources. Geneious Basic has been designed to be an easy-to-use and flexible desktop software application framework for the organization and analysis of biological data, with a focus on molecular sequences and related data types. It integrates numerous industry-standard discovery analysis tools, with interactive visualizations to generate publication-ready images. One key contribution to researchers in the life sciences is the Geneious public application programming interface (API) that affords the ability to leverage the existing framework of the Geneious Basic software platform for virtually unlimited extension and customization. The result is an increase in the speed and quality of development of computation tools for the life sciences, due to the functionality and graphical user interface available to the developer through the public API. Geneious Basic represents an ideal platform for the bioinformatics community to leverage existing components and to integrate their own specific requirements for the discovery, analysis and visualization of biological data. Availability and implementation: Binaries and public API freely available for download at http://www.geneious.com/basic, implemented in Java and supported on Linux, Apple OSX and MS Windows. The software is also available from the Bio-Linux package repository at http://nebc.nerc.ac.uk/news/geneiousonbl. Contact: peter@biomatters.com
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            QUAST: quality assessment tool for genome assemblies.

            Limitations of genome sequencing techniques have led to dozens of assembly algorithms, none of which is perfect. A number of methods for comparing assemblers have been developed, but none is yet a recognized benchmark. Further, most existing methods for comparing assemblies are only applicable to new assemblies of finished genomes; the problem of evaluating assemblies of previously unsequenced species has not been adequately considered. Here, we present QUAST-a quality assessment tool for evaluating and comparing genome assemblies. This tool improves on leading assembly comparison software with new ideas and quality metrics. QUAST can evaluate assemblies both with a reference genome, as well as without a reference. QUAST produces many reports, summary tables and plots to help scientists in their research and in their publications. In this study, we used QUAST to compare several genome assemblers on three datasets. QUAST tables and plots for all of them are available in the Supplementary Material, and interactive versions of these reports are on the QUAST website. http://bioinf.spbau.ru/quast . Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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              Unicycler: Resolving bacterial genome assemblies from short and long sequencing reads

              The Illumina DNA sequencing platform generates accurate but short reads, which can be used to produce accurate but fragmented genome assemblies. Pacific Biosciences and Oxford Nanopore Technologies DNA sequencing platforms generate long reads that can produce complete genome assemblies, but the sequencing is more expensive and error-prone. There is significant interest in combining data from these complementary sequencing technologies to generate more accurate “hybrid” assemblies. However, few tools exist that truly leverage the benefits of both types of data, namely the accuracy of short reads and the structural resolving power of long reads. Here we present Unicycler, a new tool for assembling bacterial genomes from a combination of short and long reads, which produces assemblies that are accurate, complete and cost-effective. Unicycler builds an initial assembly graph from short reads using the de novo assembler SPAdes and then simplifies the graph using information from short and long reads. Unicycler uses a novel semi-global aligner to align long reads to the assembly graph. Tests on both synthetic and real reads show Unicycler can assemble larger contigs with fewer misassemblies than other hybrid assemblers, even when long-read depth and accuracy are low. Unicycler is open source (GPLv3) and available at github.com/rrwick/Unicycler.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Microbiol
                Front Microbiol
                Front. Microbiol.
                Frontiers in Microbiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-302X
                09 October 2020
                2020
                : 11
                : 573588
                Affiliations
                [1] 1 Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania , Hobart, TAS, Australia
                [2] 2 Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Bribie Island Research Centre , Woorim, QLD, Australia
                Author notes

                Edited by: Jose M. Gonzalez, University of La Laguna, Spain

                Reviewed by: Marta Gomez-Chiarri, University of Rhode Island, United States; Lone Hoj, Australian Institute of Marine Science (AIMS), Australia

                *Correspondence: Mei C. Ooi, mei.ooi@ 123456utas.edu.au

                This article was submitted to Aquatic Microbiology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Microbiology

                Article
                10.3389/fmicb.2020.573588
                7581904
                79d77089-5d40-4454-8168-a44de0b7bf83
                Copyright © 2020 Ooi, Goulden, Trotter, Smith and Bridle.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 17 June 2020
                : 07 September 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 67, Pages: 14, Words: 8722
                Funding
                Funded by: Australian Research Council Industrial Transformation Hub for Sustainable Onshore Lobster Aquaculture
                Award ID: IH190100014
                Categories
                Microbiology
                Original Research

                Microbiology & Virology
                white leg disease,aquimarina sp.,koch’s postulates,cultured lobster,palinurid larvae,scyllarid larvae

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