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      Understanding cytoskeleton regulators in glioblastoma multiforme for therapy design

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          Abstract

          The cellular cytoskeleton forms the primary basis through which a cell governs the changes in size, shape, migration, proliferation, and forms the primary means through which the cells respond to their environment. Indeed, cell and tissue morphologies are used routinely not only to grade tumors but also in various high-content screening methods with an aim to identify new small molecules with therapeutic potential. This study examines the expression of various cytoskeleton regulators in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). GBM is a very aggressive disease with a low life expectancy even after chemo- and radiotherapy. Cancer cells of GBM are notorious for their invasiveness, ability to develop resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy, and to form secondary site tumors. This study aims to gain insight into cytoskeleton regulators in GBM cells and to understand the effect of various oncology drugs, including temozolomide, on cytoskeleton regulators. We compare the expression of various cytoskeleton regulators in GBM-derived tumor and normal tissue, CD133-postive and -negative cells from GBM and neural cells, and GBM stem-like and differentiated cells. In addition, the correlation between the expression of cytoskeleton regulators with the clinical outcome was examined to identify genes associated with longer patient survival. This was followed by a small molecule screening with US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved oncology drugs, and its effect on cellular cytoskeleton was compared to treatment with temozolomide. This study identifies various groups of cytoskeletal regulators that have an important effect on patient survival and tumor development. Importantly, this work highlights the advantage of using cytoskeleton regulators as biomarkers for assessing prognosis and treatment design for GBM.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Integrative analysis of complex cancer genomics and clinical profiles using the cBioPortal.

           J. Gao,  B. Aksoy,  U Dogrusoz (2013)
          The cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics (http://cbioportal.org) provides a Web resource for exploring, visualizing, and analyzing multidimensional cancer genomics data. The portal reduces molecular profiling data from cancer tissues and cell lines into readily understandable genetic, epigenetic, gene expression, and proteomic events. The query interface combined with customized data storage enables researchers to interactively explore genetic alterations across samples, genes, and pathways and, when available in the underlying data, to link these to clinical outcomes. The portal provides graphical summaries of gene-level data from multiple platforms, network visualization and analysis, survival analysis, patient-centric queries, and software programmatic access. The intuitive Web interface of the portal makes complex cancer genomics profiles accessible to researchers and clinicians without requiring bioinformatics expertise, thus facilitating biological discoveries. Here, we provide a practical guide to the analysis and visualization features of the cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics.
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            CBTRUS statistical report: primary brain and central nervous system tumors diagnosed in the United States in 2005-2009.

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              Hypoxia is important in the biology and aggression of human glial brain tumors.

              We investigated whether increasing levels of tissue hypoxia, measured by the binding of EF5 [2-(2-nitro-1-H-imidazol-1-yl)-N-(2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropyl) acetamide] or by Eppendorf needle electrodes, were associated with tumor aggressiveness in patients with previously untreated glial brain tumors. We hypothesized that more extensive and severe hypoxia would be present in tumor cells from patients bearing more clinically aggressive tumors. Hypoxia was measured with the 2-nitroimidazole imaging agent EF5 in 18 patients with supratentorial glial neoplasms. In 12 patients, needle electrode measurements were made intraoperatively. Time to recurrence was used as an indicator of tumor aggression and was analyzed as a function of EF5 binding, electrode values and recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) classification. On the basis of EF5 binding, WHO grade 2 tumors were characterized by modest cellular hypoxia (pO2s approximately 10%) and grade 3 tumors by modest-to-moderate hypoxia (pO2s approximately 10%- 2.5%). Severe hypoxia (approximately 0.1% oxygen) was present in 5 of 12 grade 4 tumors. A correlation between more rapid tumor recurrence and hypoxia was demonstrated with EF5 binding, but this relationship was not predicted by Eppendorf measurements.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2016
                12 September 2016
                : 10
                : 2881-2897
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Microbiology Tumor and Cell Biology
                [2 ]Center for Hematology and Regenerative Medicine, Department of Medicine
                [3 ]Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden
                [4 ]Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Leipzig, Germany
                [5 ]Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Satish S Kitambi, Department of Microbiology Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Nobels Vag 16, Solna 17177, Sweden, Email satish.kitambi@ 123456ki.se
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                dddt-10-2881
                10.2147/DDDT.S106196
                5026218
                27672311
                © 2016 Masoumi et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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