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      Size, microhabitat, and loss of larval feeding drive cranial diversification in frogs

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          Abstract

          Habitat is one of the most important factors shaping organismal morphology, but it may vary across life history stages. Ontogenetic shifts in ecology may introduce antagonistic selection that constrains adult phenotype, particularly with ecologically distinct developmental phases such as the free-living, feeding larval stage of many frogs (Lissamphibia: Anura). We test the relative influences of developmental and ecological factors on the diversification of adult skull morphology with a detailed analysis of 15 individual cranial regions across 173 anuran species, representing every extant family. Skull size, adult microhabitat, larval feeding, and ossification timing are all significant factors shaping aspects of cranial evolution in frogs, with late-ossifying elements showing the greatest disparity and fastest evolutionary rates. Size and microhabitat show the strongest effects on cranial shape, and we identify a “large size-wide skull” pattern of anuran, and possibly amphibian, evolutionary allometry. Fossorial and aquatic microhabitats occupy distinct regions of morphospace and display fast evolution and high disparity. Taxa with and without feeding larvae do not notably differ in cranial morphology. However, loss of an actively feeding larval stage is associated with higher evolutionary rates and disparity, suggesting that functional pressures experienced earlier in ontogeny significantly impact adult morphological evolution.

          Abstract

          The evolution of metamorphic species may be constrained by different ecologies of the larval and adult stages. Here, Bardua et al. show that in frogs, adult ecology is more important than larval ecology for skull evolution, but species that don’t feed as tadpoles evolve faster than those that do.

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          Structural absorption by barbule microstructures of super black bird of paradise feathers

          Many studies have shown how pigments and internal nanostructures generate color in nature. External surface structures can also influence appearance, such as by causing multiple scattering of light (structural absorption) to produce a velvety, super black appearance. Here we show that feathers from five species of birds of paradise (Aves: Paradisaeidae) structurally absorb incident light to produce extremely low-reflectance, super black plumages. Directional reflectance of these feathers (0.05–0.31%) approaches that of man-made ultra-absorbent materials. SEM, nano-CT, and ray-tracing simulations show that super black feathers have titled arrays of highly modified barbules, which cause more multiple scattering, resulting in more structural absorption, than normal black feathers. Super black feathers have an extreme directional reflectance bias and appear darkest when viewed from the distal direction. We hypothesize that structurally absorbing, super black plumage evolved through sensory bias to enhance the perceived brilliance of adjacent color patches during courtship display.
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            ape 5.0: an environment for modern phylogenetics and evolutionary analyses in R

            After more than fifteen years of existence, the R package ape has continuously grown its contents, and has been used by a growing community of users. The release of version 5.0 has marked a leap towards a modern software for evolutionary analyses. Efforts have been put to improve efficiency, flexibility, support for 'big data' (R's long vectors), ease of use and quality check before a new release. These changes will hopefully make ape a useful software for the study of biodiversity and evolution in a context of increasing data quantity.
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              phytools: an R package for phylogenetic comparative biology (and other things)

               Liam Revell (2012)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                a.goswami@nhm.ac.uk
                Journal
                Nat Commun
                Nat Commun
                Nature Communications
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2041-1723
                4 May 2021
                4 May 2021
                2021
                : 12
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.35937.3b, ISNI 0000 0001 2270 9879, Department of Life Sciences, , Natural History Museum, ; London, UK
                [2 ]GRID grid.83440.3b, ISNI 0000000121901201, Department of Genetics, Evolution & Environment, , University College London, ; London, UK
                [3 ]GRID grid.7400.3, ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0650, Paläontologisches Institut und Museum, , Universität Zürich, ; Zürich, Switzerland
                [4 ]GRID grid.7849.2, ISNI 0000 0001 2150 7757, Univ Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, ENTPE, UMR 5023 LEHNA, F-69622, ; Villeurbanne, France
                [5 ]GRID grid.422371.1, ISNI 0000 0001 2293 9957, Museum für Naturkunde, Leibniz Institut für Evolutions und Biodiversitätsforschung, ; Berlin, Germany
                [6 ]GRID grid.15276.37, ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8091, Department of Natural History, Florida Museum of Natural History, , University of Florida, ; Gainesville, FL USA
                Article
                22792
                10.1038/s41467-021-22792-y
                8096824
                33947859
                © Crown 2021

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/100010661, EC | Horizon 2020 Framework Programme (EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation H2020);
                Award ID: FR-TAF-5583
                Award ID: H2020-MCSA-IF-2017-797373
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/100000001, National Science Foundation (NSF);
                Award ID: DBI-1701714
                Award ID: DBI-1701714
                Award ID: DEB-0345885
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/100010663, EC | EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation H2020 | H2020 Priority Excellent Science | H2020 European Research Council (H2020 Excellent Science - European Research Council);
                Award ID: STG-2014–637171
                Award Recipient :
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                © The Author(s) 2021

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