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      Quantitative analysis of heart rate variability.

      Chaos (Woodbury, N.Y.)

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          Abstract

          In the modern industrialized countries every year several hundred thousands of people die due to sudden cardiac death. The individual risk for this sudden cardiac death cannot be defined precisely by common available, noninvasive diagnostic tools like Holter monitoring, highly amplified ECG and traditional linear analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). Therefore, we apply some rather unconventional methods of nonlinear dynamics to analyze the HRV. Especially, some complexity measures that are based on symbolic dynamics as well as a new measure, the renormalized entropy, detect some abnormalities in the HRV of several patients who have been classified in the low risk group by traditional methods. A combination of these complexity measures with the parameters in the frequency domain seems to be a promising way to get a more precise definition of the individual risk. These findings have to be validated by a representative number of patients. (c) 1995 American Institute of Physics.

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          Most cited references 9

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          Ergodic theory of chaos and strange attractors

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            Long-range anticorrelations and non-Gaussian behavior of the heartbeat.

            We find that the successive increments in the cardiac beat-to-beat intervals of healthy subjects display scale-invariant, long-range anticorrelations (up to 10(4) heart beats). Furthermore, we find that the histogram for the heartbeat intervals increments is well described by a Lévy stable distribution. For a group of subjects with severe heart disease, we find that the distribution is unchanged, but the long-range correlations vanish. Therefore, the different scaling behavior in health and disease must relate to the underlying dynamics of the heartbeat.
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              Approximate entropy (ApEn) as a complexity measure.

               S Pincus (1995)
              Approximate entropy (ApEn) is a recently developed statistic quantifying regularity and complexity, which appears to have potential application to a wide variety of relatively short (greater than 100 points) and noisy time-series data. The development of ApEn was motivated by data length constraints commonly encountered, e.g., in heart rate, EEG, and endocrine hormone secretion data sets. We describe ApEn implementation and interpretation, indicating its utility to distinguish correlated stochastic processes, and composite deterministic/ stochastic models. We discuss the key technical idea that motivates ApEn, that one need not fully reconstruct an attractor to discriminate in a statistically valid manner-marginal probability distributions often suffice for this purpose. Finally, we discuss why algorithms to compute, e.g., correlation dimension and the Kolmogorov-Sinai (KS) entropy, often work well for true dynamical systems, yet sometimes operationally confound for general models, with the aid of visual representations of reconstructed dynamics for two contrasting processes. (c) 1995 American Institute of Physics.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                12780160
                10.1063/1.166090

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