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      Minimalist revision and description of 403 new species in 11 subfamilies of Costa Rican braconid parasitoid wasps, including host records for 219 species

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          Abstract

          Three new genera are described: Michener (Proteropinae), Bioalfa (Rogadinae), and Hermosomastax (Rogadinae). Keys are given for the New World genera of the following braconid subfamilies: Agathidinae, Braconinae, Cheloninae, Homolobinae, Hormiinae, Ichneutinae, Macrocentrinae, Orgilinae, Proteropinae, Rhysipolinae, and Rogadinae. In these subfamilies 416 species are described or redescribed. Most of the species have been reared and all but 13 are new to science. A consensus sequence of the COI barcodes possessed by each species is employed to diagnose the species, and this approach is justified in the introduction. Most descriptions consist of a lateral or dorsal image of the holotype, a diagnostic COI consensus barcode, the Barcode Index Number (BIN) code with a link to the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD), and the holotype specimen information required by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. The following species are treated and those lacking authorship are newly described here with authorship attributable to Sharkey except for the new species of Macrocentrinae which are by Sharkey & van Achterberg: AGATHIDINAE: Aerophilus paulmarshi, Mesocoelus davidsmithi, Neothlipsis bobkulai, Plesiocoelus vanachterbergi, Pneumagathis erythrogastra (Cameron, 1905), Therophilus bobwhartoni, T. donaldquickei, T. gracewoodae, T. maetoi, T. montywoodi, T. penteadodiasae, Zacremnops brianbrowni, Z. coatlicue Sharkey, 1990, Zacremnops cressoni (Cameron, 1887), Z. ekchuah Sharkey, 1990, Z. josefernandezi, Zelomorpha sarahmeierottoae. BRACONINAE: Bracon alejandromarini, B. alejandromasisi, B. alexamasisae, B. andresmarini, B. andrewwalshi, B. anniapicadoae, B. anniemoriceae, B. barryhammeli, B. bernardoespinozai, B. carlossanabriai, B. chanchini, B. christophervallei, B. erasmocoronadoi, B. eugeniephillipsae, B. federicomatarritai, B. frankjoycei, B. gerardovegai, B. germanvegai, B. isidrochaconi, B. jimlewisi, B. josejaramilloi, B. juanjoseoviedoi, B. juliodiazi, B. luzmariaromeroae, B. manuelzumbadoi, B. marialuisariasae, B. mariamartachavarriae, B. mariorivasi, B. melissaespinozae, B. nelsonzamorai, B. nicklaphami, B. ninamasisae, B. oliverwalshi, B. paulamarinae, B. rafamoralesi, B. robertofernandezi, B. rogerblancoi, B. ronaldzunigai, B. sigifredomarini, B. tihisiaboshartae, B. wilberthbrizuelai, Digonogastra montylloydi, D. montywoodi, D. motohasegawai, D. natwheelwrighti, D. nickgrishini. CHELONINAE: Adelius adrianguadamuzi, A. gauldi Shimbori & Shaw, 2019, A. janzeni Shimbori & Shaw, 2019, Ascogaster gloriasihezarae, A. grettelvegae, A. guillermopereirai, A. gustavoecheverrii, A. katyvandusenae, A. luisdiegogomezi, Chelonus alejandrozaldivari, C. gustavogutierrezi, C. gustavoinduni, C. harryramirezi, C. hartmanguidoi, C. hazelcambroneroae, C. iangauldi, C. isidrochaconi, C. janecheverriae, C. jeffmilleri, C. jennyphillipsae, C. jeremydewaardi, C. jessiehillae, C. jesusugaldei, C. jimlewisi, C. jimmilleri, C. jimwhitfieldi, C. johanvalerioi, C. johnburnsi, C. johnnoyesi, C. jorgebaltodanoi, C. jorgehernandezi, C. josealfredohernandezi, C. josefernandeztrianai, C. josehernandezcortesi, C. josemanuelperezi, C. josephinerodriguezae, C. juanmatai, C. junkoshimurae, C. kateperezae, C. luciariosae, C. luzmariaromeroae, C. manuelpereirai, C. manuelzumbadoi, C. marianopereirai, C. maribellealvarezae, C. markmetzi, C. markshawi, C. martajimenezae, C. mayrabonillae, C. meganmiltonae, C. melaniamunozae, C. michaelstroudi, C. michellevanderbankae, C. mingfangi, C. minorcarmonai, C. monikaspringerae, C. moniquegilbertae, C. motohasegawai, C. nataliaivanovae, C. nelsonzamorai, C. normwoodleyi, C. osvaldoespinozai, C. pamelacastilloae, C. paulgoldsteini, C. paulhansoni, C. paulheberti, C. petronariosae, C. ramyamanjunathae, C. randallgarciai, C. rebeccakittelae, C. robertoespinozai, C. robertofernandezi, C. rocioecheverriae, C. rodrigogamezi, C. ronaldzunigai, C. rosibelelizondoae, C. rostermoragai, C. ruthfrancoae, C. scottmilleri, C. scottshawi, C. sergioriosi, C. sigifredomarini, C. stevearonsoni, C. stevestroudi, C. sujeevanratnasinghami, C. sureshnaiki, C. torbjornekremi, C. yeimycedenoae, Leptodrepana alexisae, L. erasmocoronadoi, L. felipechavarriai, L. freddyquesadai, L. gilbertfuentesi, L. manuelriosi, Phanerotoma almasolisae, P. alvaroherrerai, P. anacordobae, P. anamariamongeae, P. andydeansi, P. angelagonzalezae, P. angelsolisi, P. barryhammeli, P. bernardoespinozai, P. calixtomoragai, P. carolinacanoae, P. christerhanssoni, P. christhompsoni, P. davesmithi, P. davidduthiei, P. dirksteinkei, P. donquickei, P. duniagarciae, P. duvalierbricenoi, P. eddysanchezi, P. eldarayae, P. eliethcantillanoae, P. jenopappi, Pseudophanerotoma alanflemingi, Ps. albanjimenezi, Ps. alejandromarini, Ps. alexsmithi, Ps. allisonbrownae, Ps. bobrobbinsi. HOMOLOBINAE: Exasticolus jennyphillipsae, E. randallgarciai, E. robertofernandezi, E. sigifredomarini, E. tomlewinsoni. HORMIINAE: Hormius anamariamongeae, H. angelsolisi, H. anniapicadoae, H. arthurchapmani, H. barryhammeli, H. carmenretanae, H. carloswalkeri, H. cesarsuarezi, H. danbrooksi, H. eddysanchezi, H. erikframstadi, H. georgedavisi, H. grettelvegae, H. gustavoinduni, H. hartmanguidoi, H. hectoraritai, H. hesiquiobenitezi, H. irenecanasae, H. isidrochaconi, H. jaygallegosi, H. jimbeachi, H. jimlewisi, H. joelcracrafti, H. johanvalerioi, H. johnburleyi, H. joncoddingtoni, H. jorgecarvajali, H. juanmatai, H. manuelzumbadoi, H. mercedesfosterae, H. modonnellyae, H. nelsonzamorai, H. pamelacastilloae, H. raycypessi, H. ritacolwellae, H. robcolwelli, H. rogerblancosegurai, H. ronaldzunigai, H. russchapmani, H. virginiaferrisae, H. warrenbrighami, H. willsflowersi. ICHNEUTINAE: Oligoneurus kriskrishtalkai, O. jorgejimenezi, Paroligoneurus elainehoaglandae, P. julianhumphriesi, P. mikeiviei. MACROCENTRINAE: Austrozele jorgecampabadali, A. jorgesoberoni, Dolichozele gravitarsis (Muesebeck, 1938), D. josefernandeztrianai, D. josephinerodriguezae, Hymenochaonia kalevikulli, H. kateperezae, H. katherinebaillieae, H. katherineellisonae, H. katyvandusenae, H. kazumifukunagae, H. keithlangdoni, H. keithwillmotti, H. kenjinishidai, H. kimberleysheldonae, H. krisnorvigae, H. lilianamadrigalae, H. lizlangleyae, Macrocentrus fredsingeri, M. geoffbarnardi, M. gregburtoni, M. gretchendailyae, M. grettelvegae, M. gustavogutierrezi, M. hannahjamesae, M. harisridhari, M. hillaryrosnerae, M. hiroshikidonoi, M. iangauldi, M. jennyphillipsae, M. jesseausubeli, M. jessemaysharkae, M. jimwhitfieldi, M. johnbrowni, M. johnburnsi, M. jonathanfranzeni, M. jonathanrosenbergi, M. jorgebaltodanoi, M. lucianocapelli. ORGILINAE: Orgilus amyrossmanae, O. carrolyoonae, O. christhompsoni, O. christinemcmahonae, O. dianalipscombae, O. ebbenielsoni, O. elizabethpennisiae, O. evertlindquisti, O. genestoermeri, O. jamesriegeri, O. jeanmillerae, O. jeffmilleri, O. jerrypowelli, O. jimtiedjei, O. johnlundbergi, O. johnpipolyi, O. jorgellorentei, O. larryspearsi, O. marlinricei, O. mellissaespinozae, O. mikesmithi, O. normplatnicki, O. peterrauchi, O. richardprimacki, O. sandraberriosae, O. sarahmirandae, O. scottmilleri, O. scottmorii, Stantonia billalleni, S. brookejarvisae, S. donwilsoni, S. erikabjorstromae, S. garywolfi, S. henrikekmani, S. luismirandai, S. miriamzunzae, S. quentinwheeleri, S. robinkazmierae, S. ruthtifferae. PROTEROPINAE: Hebichneutes tricolor Sharkey & Wharton, 1994, Proterops iangauldi, P. vickifunkae, Michener charlesi. RHYSIPOLINAE: Pseudorhysipolis luisfonsecai, P. mailyngonzalezaeRhysipolis julioquirosi. ROGADINAE: Aleiodes adrianaradulovae, A. adrianforsythi, A. agnespeelleae, A. alaneaglei, A. alanflemingi, A. alanhalevii, A. alejandromasisi, A. alessandracallejae, A. alexsmithi, A. alfonsopescadori, A. alisundermieri, A. almasolisae, A. alvarougaldei, A. alvaroumanai, A. angelsolisi, A. annhowdenae, A. bobandersoni, A. carolinagodoyae, A. charlieobrieni, A. davefurthi, A. donwhiteheadi, A. doylemckeyi, A. frankhovorei, A. henryhowdeni, A. inga Shimbori & Shaw, 2020, A. johnchemsaki, A. johnkingsolveri, A. gonodontovorus Shimbori & Shaw, 2020, A. manuelzumbadoi, A. mayrabonillae, A. michelledsouzae, A. mikeiviei, A. normwoodleyi, A. pammitchellae, A. pauljohnsoni, A. rosewarnerae, A. steveashei, A. terryerwini, A. willsflowersi, Bioalfa pedroleoni, B. alvarougaldei, B. rodrigogamezi, Choreborogas andydeansi, C. eladiocastroi, C. felipechavarriai, C. frankjoycei, Clinocentrus andywarreni, Cl. angelsolisi, Cystomastax alexhausmanni, Cy. angelagonzalezae, Cy. ayaigarashiae, Hermosomastax clavifemorus Quicke sp. nov., Heterogamus donstonei, Pseudoyelicones bernsweeneyi, Stiropius bencrairi, S. berndkerni, S. edgargutierrezi, S. edwilsoni, S. ehakernae, Triraphis billfreelandi, T. billmclarneyi, T. billripplei, T. bobandersoni, T. bobrobbinsi, T. bradzlotnicki, T. brianbrowni, T. brianlaueri, T. briannestjacquesae, T. camilocamargoi, T. carlosherrerai, T. carolinepalmerae, T. charlesmorrisi, T. chigiybinellae, T. christerhanssoni, T. christhompsoni, T. conniebarlowae, T. craigsimonsi, T. defectus Valerio, 2015, T. danielhubi, T. davidduthiei, T. davidwahli, T. federicomatarritai, T. ferrisjabri, T. mariobozai, T. martindohrni, T. matssegnestami, T. mehrdadhajibabaei, T. ollieflinti, T. tildalauerae, Yelicones dirksteinkei, Y. markmetzi, Y. monserrathvargasae, Y. tricolor Quicke, 1996. Y. woldai Quicke, 1996.

          The following new combinations are proposed: Neothlipsis smithi (Ashmead), new combination for Microdus smithi Ashmead, 1894; Neothlipsis pygmaeus (Enderlein), new combination for Microdus pygmaeus Enderlein, 1920; Neothlipsis unicinctus (Ashmead), new combination for Microdus unicinctus Ashmead, 1894; Therophilus anomalus (Bortoni and Penteado-Dias) new combination for Plesiocoelus anomalus Bortoni and Penteado-Dias, 2015; Aerophilus areolatus (Bortoni and Penteado-Dias) new combination for Plesiocoelus areolatus Bortoni and Penteado-Dias, 2015; Pneumagathis erythrogastra (Cameron) new combination for Agathis erythrogastra Cameron, 1905. Dolichozele citreitarsis (Enderlein), new combination for Paniscozele citreitarsis Enderlein, 1920. Dolichozele fuscivertex (Enderlein) new combination for Paniscozele fuscivertex Enderlein, 1920. Finally, Bassus brooksi Sharkey, 1998 is synonymized with Agathis erythrogastra Cameron, 1905; Paniscozele griseipes Enderlein, 1920 is synonymized with Dolichozele koebelei Viereck, 1911; Paniscozele carinifrons Enderlein, 1920 is synonymized with Dolichozele fuscivertex (Enderlein, 1920); and Paniscozele nigricauda Enderlein,1920 is synonymized with Dolichozele quaestor (Fabricius, 1804). (originally described as Ophion quaestor Fabricius, 1804).

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          An inexpensive, automation-friendly protocol for recovering high-quality DNA

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            DNA barcodes distinguish species of tropical Lepidoptera.

            Although central to much biological research, the identification of species is often difficult. The use of DNA barcodes, short DNA sequences from a standardized region of the genome, has recently been proposed as a tool to facilitate species identification and discovery. However, the effectiveness of DNA barcoding for identifying specimens in species-rich tropical biotas is unknown. Here we show that cytochrome c oxidase I DNA barcodes effectively discriminate among species in three Lepidoptera families from Area de Conservación Guanacaste in northwestern Costa Rica. We found that 97.9% of the 521 species recognized by prior taxonomic work possess distinctive cytochrome c oxidase I barcodes and that the few instances of interspecific sequence overlap involve very similar species. We also found two or more barcode clusters within each of 13 supposedly single species. Covariation between these clusters and morphological and/or ecological traits indicates overlooked species complexes. If these results are general, DNA barcoding will significantly aid species identification and discovery in tropical settings.
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              Extreme diversity of tropical parasitoid wasps exposed by iterative integration of natural history, DNA barcoding, morphology, and collections.

              We DNA barcoded 2,597 parasitoid wasps belonging to 6 microgastrine braconid genera reared from parapatric tropical dry forest, cloud forest, and rain forest in Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica and combined these data with records of caterpillar hosts and morphological analyses. We asked whether barcoding and morphology discover the same provisional species and whether the biological entities revealed by our analysis are congruent with wasp host specificity. Morphological analysis revealed 171 provisional species, but barcoding exposed an additional 142 provisional species; 95% of the total is likely to be undescribed. These 313 provisional species are extraordinarily host specific; more than 90% attack only 1 or 2 species of caterpillars out of more than 3,500 species sampled. The most extreme case of overlooked diversity is the morphospecies Apanteles leucostigmus. This minute black wasp with a distinctive white wing stigma was thought to parasitize 32 species of ACG hesperiid caterpillars, but barcoding revealed 36 provisional species, each attacking one or a very few closely related species of caterpillars. When host records and/or within-ACG distributions suggested that DNA barcoding had missed a species-pair, or when provisional species were separated only by slight differences in their barcodes, we examined nuclear sequences to test hypotheses of presumptive species boundaries and to further probe host specificity. Our iterative process of combining morphological analysis, ecology, and DNA barcoding and reiteratively using specimens maintained in permanent collections has resulted in a much more fine-scaled understanding of parasitoid diversity and host specificity than any one of these elements could have produced on its own.
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                Journal
                ZooKeys
                ZK
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2970
                1313-2989
                February 02 2021
                February 02 2021
                : 1013
                : 1-665
                Article
                10.3897/zookeys.1013.55600
                © 2021

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