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      Minimalist revision and description of 403 new species in 11 subfamilies of Costa Rican braconid parasitoid wasps, including host records for 219 species

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      Accelerated taxonomy, Agathidinae , BIN code, BioAlfa, Braconidae , Braconinae , caterpillar, Cheloninae , COI barcode, conservation, DNA barcode, Homolobinae , Hormiinae , Hymenoptera , Ichneumonoidea , Ichneutinae , Lepidoptera , Macrocentrinae , parasitoid host associations, Proteropinae , Rogadinae , Rhysipolinae , tri-trophic interaction, tropical

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          Abstract

          Three new genera are described: Michener ( Proteropinae ), Bioalfa ( Rogadinae ), and Hermosomastax ( Rogadinae ). Keys are given for the New World genera of the following braconid subfamilies: Agathidinae , Braconinae , Cheloninae , Homolobinae , Hormiinae , Ichneutinae , Macrocentrinae , Orgilinae , Proteropinae , Rhysipolinae , and Rogadinae . In these subfamilies 416 species are described or redescribed. Most of the species have been reared and all but 13 are new to science. A consensus sequence of the COI barcodes possessed by each species is employed to diagnose the species, and this approach is justified in the introduction. Most descriptions consist of a lateral or dorsal image of the holotype, a diagnostic COI consensus barcode, the Barcode Index Number (BIN) code with a link to the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD), and the holotype specimen information required by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. The following species are treated and those lacking authorship are newly described here with authorship attributable to Sharkey except for the new species of Macrocentrinae which are by Sharkey & van Achterberg: AGATHIDINAE : Aerophilus paulmarshi , Mesocoelus davidsmithi , Neothlipsis bobkulai , Plesiocoelus vanachterbergi , Pneumagathis erythrogastra (Cameron, 1905), Therophilus bobwhartoni , T. donaldquickei , T. gracewoodae , T. maetoi , T. montywoodi , T. penteadodiasae , Zacremnops brianbrowni , Z. coatlicue Sharkey, 1990, Zacremnops cressoni (Cameron, 1887), Z. ekchuah Sharkey, 1990, Z. josefernandezi , Zelomorpha sarahmeierottoae . BRACONINAE : Bracon alejandromarini , B. alejandromasisi , B. alexamasisae , B. andresmarini , B. andrewwalshi , B. anniapicadoae , B. anniemoriceae , B. barryhammeli , B. bernardoespinozai , B. carlossanabriai , B. chanchini , B. christophervallei , B. erasmocoronadoi , B. eugeniephillipsae , B. federicomatarritai , B. frankjoycei , B. gerardovegai , B. germanvegai , B. isidrochaconi , B. jimlewisi , B. josejaramilloi , B. juanjoseoviedoi , B. juliodiazi , B. luzmariaromeroae , B. manuelzumbadoi , B. marialuisariasae , B. mariamartachavarriae , B. mariorivasi , B. melissaespinozae , B. nelsonzamorai , B. nicklaphami , B. ninamasisae , B. oliverwalshi , B. paulamarinae , B. rafamoralesi , B. robertofernandezi , B. rogerblancoi , B. ronaldzunigai , B. sigifredomarini , B. tihisiaboshartae , B. wilberthbrizuelai , Digonogastra montylloydi , D. montywoodi , D. motohasegawai , D. natwheelwrighti , D. nickgrishini . CHELONINAE : Adelius adrianguadamuzi , A. gauldi Shimbori & Shaw, 2019, A. janzeni Shimbori & Shaw, 2019, Ascogaster gloriasihezarae , A. grettelvegae , A. guillermopereirai , A. gustavoecheverrii , A. katyvandusenae , A. luisdiegogomezi , Chelonus alejandrozaldivari , C. gustavogutierrezi , C. gustavoinduni , C. harryramirezi , C. hartmanguidoi , C. hazelcambroneroae , C. iangauldi , C. isidrochaconi , C. janecheverriae , C. jeffmilleri , C. jennyphillipsae , C. jeremydewaardi , C. jessiehillae , C. jesusugaldei , C. jimlewisi , C. jimmilleri , C. jimwhitfieldi , C. johanvalerioi , C. johnburnsi , C. johnnoyesi , C. jorgebaltodanoi , C. jorgehernandezi , C. josealfredohernandezi , C. josefernandeztrianai , C. josehernandezcortesi , C. josemanuelperezi , C. josephinerodriguezae , C. juanmatai , C. junkoshimurae , C. kateperezae , C. luciariosae , C. luzmariaromeroae , C. manuelpereirai , C. manuelzumbadoi , C. marianopereirai , C. maribellealvarezae , C. markmetzi , C. markshawi , C. martajimenezae , C. mayrabonillae , C. meganmiltonae , C. melaniamunozae , C. michaelstroudi , C. michellevanderbankae , C. mingfangi , C. minorcarmonai , C. monikaspringerae , C. moniquegilbertae , C. motohasegawai , C. nataliaivanovae , C. nelsonzamorai , C. normwoodleyi , C. osvaldoespinozai , C. pamelacastilloae , C. paulgoldsteini , C. paulhansoni , C. paulheberti , C. petronariosae , C. ramyamanjunathae , C. randallgarciai , C. rebeccakittelae , C. robertoespinozai , C. robertofernandezi , C. rocioecheverriae , C. rodrigogamezi , C. ronaldzunigai , C. rosibelelizondoae , C. rostermoragai , C. ruthfrancoae , C. scottmilleri , C. scottshawi , C. sergioriosi , C. sigifredomarini , C. stevearonsoni , C. stevestroudi , C. sujeevanratnasinghami , C. sureshnaiki , C. torbjornekremi , C. yeimycedenoae , Leptodrepana alexisae , L. erasmocoronadoi , L. felipechavarriai , L. freddyquesadai , L. gilbertfuentesi , L. manuelriosi , Phanerotoma almasolisae , P. alvaroherrerai , P. anacordobae , P. anamariamongeae , P. andydeansi , P. angelagonzalezae , P. angelsolisi , P. barryhammeli , P. bernardoespinozai , P. calixtomoragai , P. carolinacanoae , P. christerhanssoni , P. christhompsoni , P. davesmithi , P. davidduthiei , P. dirksteinkei , P. donquickei , P. duniagarciae , P. duvalierbricenoi , P. eddysanchezi , P. eldarayae , P. eliethcantillanoae , P. jenopappi , Pseudophanerotoma alanflemingi , Ps. albanjimenezi , Ps. alejandromarini , Ps. alexsmithi , Ps. allisonbrownae , Ps. bobrobbinsi . HOMOLOBINAE : Exasticolus jennyphillipsae , E. randallgarciai , E. robertofernandezi , E. sigifredomarini , E. tomlewinsoni . HORMIINAE : Hormius anamariamongeae , H. angelsolisi , H. anniapicadoae , H. arthurchapmani , H. barryhammeli , H. carmenretanae , H. carloswalkeri , H. cesarsuarezi , H. danbrooksi , H. eddysanchezi , H. erikframstadi , H. georgedavisi , H. grettelvegae , H. gustavoinduni , H. hartmanguidoi , H. hectoraritai , H. hesiquiobenitezi , H. irenecanasae , H. isidrochaconi , H. jaygallegosi , H. jimbeachi , H. jimlewisi , H. joelcracrafti , H. johanvalerioi , H. johnburleyi , H. joncoddingtoni , H. jorgecarvajali , H. juanmatai , H. manuelzumbadoi , H. mercedesfosterae , H. modonnellyae , H. nelsonzamorai , H. pamelacastilloae , H. raycypessi , H. ritacolwellae , H. robcolwelli , H. rogerblancosegurai , H. ronaldzunigai , H. russchapmani , H. virginiaferrisae , H. warrenbrighami , H. willsflowersi . ICHNEUTINAE : Oligoneurus kriskrishtalkai , O. jorgejimenezi , Paroligoneurus elainehoaglandae , P. julianhumphriesi , P. mikeiviei . MACROCENTRINAE : Austrozele jorgecampabadali , A. jorgesoberoni , Dolichozele gravitarsis (Muesebeck, 1938), D. josefernandeztrianai , D. josephinerodriguezae , Hymenochaonia kalevikulli , H. kateperezae , H. katherinebaillieae , H. katherineellisonae , H. katyvandusenae , H. kazumifukunagae , H. keithlangdoni , H. keithwillmotti , H. kenjinishidai , H. kimberleysheldonae , H. krisnorvigae , H. lilianamadrigalae , H. lizlangleyae , Macrocentrus fredsingeri , M. geoffbarnardi , M. gregburtoni , M. gretchendailyae , M. grettelvegae , M. gustavogutierrezi , M. hannahjamesae , M. harisridhari , M. hillaryrosnerae , M. hiroshikidonoi , M. iangauldi , M. jennyphillipsae , M. jesseausubeli , M. jessemaysharkae , M. jimwhitfieldi , M. johnbrowni , M. johnburnsi , M. jonathanfranzeni , M. jonathanrosenbergi , M. jorgebaltodanoi , M. lucianocapelli . ORGILINAE : Orgilus amyrossmanae , O. carrolyoonae , O. christhompsoni , O. christinemcmahonae , O. dianalipscombae , O. ebbenielsoni , O. elizabethpennisiae , O. evertlindquisti , O. genestoermeri , O. jamesriegeri , O. jeanmillerae , O. jeffmilleri , O. jerrypowelli , O. jimtiedjei , O. johnlundbergi , O. johnpipolyi , O. jorgellorentei , O. larryspearsi , O. marlinricei , O. mellissaespinozae , O. mikesmithi , O. normplatnicki , O. peterrauchi , O. richardprimacki , O. sandraberriosae , O. sarahmirandae , O. scottmilleri , O. scottmorii , Stantonia billalleni , S. brookejarvisae , S. donwilsoni , S. erikabjorstromae , S. garywolfi , S. henrikekmani , S. luismirandai , S. miriamzunzae , S. quentinwheeleri , S. robinkazmierae , S. ruthtifferae . PROTEROPINAE : Hebichneutes tricolor Sharkey & Wharton, 1994, Proterops iangauldi , P. vickifunkae , Michener charlesi . RHYSIPOLINAE : Pseudorhysipolis luisfonsecai , P. mailyngonzalezae Rhysipolis julioquirosi . ROGADINAE : Aleiodes adrianaradulovae , A. adrianforsythi , A. agnespeelleae , A. alaneaglei , A. alanflemingi , A. alanhalevii , A. alejandromasisi , A. alessandracallejae , A. alexsmithi , A. alfonsopescadori , A. alisundermieri , A. almasolisae , A. alvarougaldei , A. alvaroumanai , A. angelsolisi , A. annhowdenae , A. bobandersoni , A. carolinagodoyae , A. charlieobrieni , A. davefurthi , A. donwhiteheadi , A. doylemckeyi , A. frankhovorei , A. henryhowdeni , A. inga Shimbori & Shaw, 2020, A. johnchemsaki , A. johnkingsolveri , A. gonodontovorus Shimbori & Shaw, 2020, A. manuelzumbadoi , A. mayrabonillae , A. michelledsouzae , A. mikeiviei , A. normwoodleyi , A. pammitchellae , A. pauljohnsoni , A. rosewarnerae , A. steveashei , A. terryerwini , A. willsflowersi , Bioalfa pedroleoni , B. alvarougaldei , B. rodrigogamezi , Choreborogas andydeansi , C. eladiocastroi , C. felipechavarriai , C. frankjoycei , Clinocentrus andywarreni , Cl. angelsolisi , Cystomastax alexhausmanni , Cy. angelagonzalezae , Cy. ayaigarashiae , Hermosomastax clavifemorus Quicke sp. nov., Heterogamus donstonei , Pseudoyelicones bernsweeneyi , Stiropius bencrairi , S. berndkerni , S. edgargutierrezi , S. edwilsoni , S. ehakernae , Triraphis billfreelandi , T. billmclarneyi , T. billripplei , T. bobandersoni , T. bobrobbinsi , T. bradzlotnicki , T. brianbrowni , T. brianlaueri , T. briannestjacquesae , T. camilocamargoi , T. carlosherrerai , T. carolinepalmerae , T. charlesmorrisi , T. chigiybinellae , T. christerhanssoni , T. christhompsoni , T. conniebarlowae , T. craigsimonsi , T. defectus Valerio, 2015, T. danielhubi , T. davidduthiei , T. davidwahli , T. federicomatarritai , T. ferrisjabri , T. mariobozai , T. martindohrni , T. matssegnestami , T. mehrdadhajibabaei , T. ollieflinti , T. tildalauerae , Yelicones dirksteinkei , Y. markmetzi , Y. monserrathvargasae , Y. tricolor Quicke, 1996. Y. woldai Quicke, 1996.

          The following new combinations are proposed: Neothlipsis smithi (Ashmead), new combination for Microdus smithi Ashmead, 1894; Neothlipsis pygmaeus (Enderlein), new combination for Microdus pygmaeus Enderlein, 1920; Neothlipsis unicinctus (Ashmead), new combination for Microdus unicinctus Ashmead, 1894; Therophilus anomalus (Bortoni and Penteado-Dias) new combination for Plesiocoelus anomalus Bortoni and Penteado-Dias, 2015; Aerophilus areolatus (Bortoni and Penteado-Dias) new combination for Plesiocoelus areolatus Bortoni and Penteado-Dias, 2015; Pneumagathis erythrogastra (Cameron) new combination for Agathis erythrogastra Cameron, 1905. Dolichozele citreitarsis (Enderlein), new combination for Paniscozele citreitarsis Enderlein, 1920. Dolichozele fuscivertex (Enderlein) new combination for Paniscozele fuscivertex Enderlein, 1920. Finally, Bassus brooksi Sharkey, 1998 is synonymized with Agathis erythrogastra Cameron, 1905; Paniscozele griseipes Enderlein, 1920 is synonymized with Dolichozele koebelei Viereck, 1911; Paniscozele carinifrons Enderlein, 1920 is synonymized with Dolichozele fuscivertex (Enderlein, 1920); and Paniscozele nigricauda Enderlein,1920 is synonymized with Dolichozele quaestor (Fabricius, 1804). (originally described as Ophion quaestor Fabricius, 1804).

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          An inexpensive, automation-friendly protocol for recovering high-quality DNA

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            DNA barcodes distinguish species of tropical Lepidoptera.

            Although central to much biological research, the identification of species is often difficult. The use of DNA barcodes, short DNA sequences from a standardized region of the genome, has recently been proposed as a tool to facilitate species identification and discovery. However, the effectiveness of DNA barcoding for identifying specimens in species-rich tropical biotas is unknown. Here we show that cytochrome c oxidase I DNA barcodes effectively discriminate among species in three Lepidoptera families from Area de Conservación Guanacaste in northwestern Costa Rica. We found that 97.9% of the 521 species recognized by prior taxonomic work possess distinctive cytochrome c oxidase I barcodes and that the few instances of interspecific sequence overlap involve very similar species. We also found two or more barcode clusters within each of 13 supposedly single species. Covariation between these clusters and morphological and/or ecological traits indicates overlooked species complexes. If these results are general, DNA barcoding will significantly aid species identification and discovery in tropical settings.
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              AliView: a fast and lightweight alignment viewer and editor for large datasets

              Summary: AliView is an alignment viewer and editor designed to meet the requirements of next-generation sequencing era phylogenetic datasets. AliView handles alignments of unlimited size in the formats most commonly used, i.e. FASTA, Phylip, Nexus, Clustal and MSF. The intuitive graphical interface makes it easy to inspect, sort, delete, merge and realign sequences as part of the manual filtering process of large datasets. AliView also works as an easy-to-use alignment editor for small as well as large datasets. Availability and implementation: AliView is released as open-source software under the GNU General Public License, version 3.0 (GPLv3), and is available at GitHub (www.github.com/AliView). The program is cross-platform and extensively tested on Linux, Mac OS X and Windows systems. Downloads and help are available at http://ormbunkar.se/aliview Contact: anders.larsson@ebc.uu.se Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2021
                02 February 2021
                : 1013
                : 1-665
                Affiliations
                [1 ] The Hymenoptera Institute, 116 Franklin Ave., Redlands, CA, 92373, USA The Hymenoptera Institute Redlands United States of America
                [2 ] Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6018, USA University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia United States of America
                [3 ] Department of Entomology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546-0091, USA University of Kentucky Lexington United States of America
                [4 ] Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph and Biodiversity Institute of Ontario, Guelph, Canada University of Guelph Guelph Canada
                [5 ] Academy of Natural Sciences, 1900 Benjamin Franklin Parkway, Philadelphia, PA 19103, USA Academy of Natural Sciences Philadelphia United States of America
                [6 ] Department of Ecosystem Science, University of Wyoming, 1000 East University Avenue, Laramie, Wyoming 82071, USA University of Wyoming Laramie United States of America
                [7 ] Museum Wiesbaden, Hessisches Landesmuseum für Kunst und Natur, Friedrich-Ebert-Allee 2, 65185 Wiesbaden, Germany Hessisches Landesmuseum für Kunst und Natur Wiesbaden Germany
                [8 ] Systematic Entomology Laboratory, Beltsville Agriculture Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, c/o National Museum Natural History, MRC 168, Smithsonian Institution, P.O. Box 37012, Washington, DC, 20013-7012, USA U.S. Department of Agriculture Washington United States of America
                [9 ] Department of Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand National Museum of Natural History Washington United States of America
                [10 ] Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Postbus 9517, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands Chulalongkorn University Bangkok Thailand
                [11 ] Department of Entomology, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, 900 Exposition Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA, 90007, USA Naturalis Biodiversity Center Leiden Netherlands
                [12 ] Division of Entomology, PO Box 37012 12. National Museum of Natural History E515 MRC127, Washington, DC 20013-7012, USA Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Los Angeles United States of America
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Michael J. Sharkey ( msharkey@ 123456uky.edu )

                Academic editor: L. Penev

                Article
                55600
                10.3897/zookeys.1013.55600
                8390796
                34512087
                79eb4bcc-d1b2-497b-9253-5ebb9dd46d66
                Michael J. Sharkey, Daniel H. Janzen, Winnie Hallwachs, Eric G. Chapman, M. Alex Smith, Tanya Dapkey, Allison Brown, Sujeevan Ratnasingham, Suresh Naik, Ramya Manjunath, Kate Perez, Megan Milton, Paul Hebert, Scott R. Shaw, Rebecca N. Kittel, M. Alma Solis, Mark A. Metz, Paul Z. Goldstein, John W. Brown, Donald L. J. Quicke, C. van Achterberg, Brian V. Brown, John M. Burns

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Monograph
                Braconidae
                Systematics
                Americas

                Animal science & Zoology
                accelerated taxonomy, agathidinae ,bin code,bioalfa, braconidae , braconinae ,caterpillar, cheloninae ,coi barcode,conservation,dna barcode, homolobinae , hormiinae , hymenoptera , ichneumonoidea , ichneutinae , lepidoptera , macrocentrinae ,parasitoid host associations, proteropinae , rogadinae , rhysipolinae ,tri-trophic interaction,tropical

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