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      Machine learning dynamical phase transitions in complex networks

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          Abstract

          In recent years, machine learning has been adopted to complex networks, but most existing works concern about the structural properties. To use machine learning to detect phase transitions and accurately identify the critical transition point associated with dynamical processes on complex networks thus stands out as an open and significant problem. Here we develop a framework combining supervised and unsupervised learning, incorporating proper sampling of training data set. In particular, using epidemic spreading dynamics on complex networks as a paradigmatic setting, we start from supervised learning alone and identify situations that degrade the performance. To overcome the difficulties leads to the idea of exploiting confusion scheme, effectively a combination of supervised and unsupervised learning. We demonstrate that the scheme performs well for identifying phase transitions associated with spreading dynamics on homogeneous networks, but the performance deteriorates for heterogeneous networks. To strive to meet this challenge leads to the realization that sampling the training data set is necessary for heterogeneous networks, and we test two sampling methods: one based on the hub nodes together with their neighbors and another based on k-core of the network. The end result is a general machine learning framework for detecting phase transition and accurately identifying the critical transition point, which is robust, computationally efficient, and universally applicable to complex networks of arbitrary size and topology. Extensive tests using synthetic and empirical networks verify the virtues of the articulated framework, opening the door to exploiting machine learning for understanding, detection, prediction, and control of complex dynamical systems in general.

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          Most cited references 5

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          Learning representations by back-propagating errors

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            Solving the quantum many-body problem with artificial neural networks.

            The challenge posed by the many-body problem in quantum physics originates from the difficulty of describing the nontrivial correlations encoded in the exponential complexity of the many-body wave function. Here we demonstrate that systematic machine learning of the wave function can reduce this complexity to a tractable computational form for some notable cases of physical interest. We introduce a variational representation of quantum states based on artificial neural networks with a variable number of hidden neurons. A reinforcement-learning scheme we demonstrate is capable of both finding the ground state and describing the unitary time evolution of complex interacting quantum systems. Our approach achieves high accuracy in describing prototypical interacting spins models in one and two dimensions.
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              Predicting the behavior of techno-social systems.

              We live in an increasingly interconnected world of techno-social systems, in which infrastructures composed of different technological layers are interoperating within the social component that drives their use and development. Examples are provided by the Internet, the World Wide Web, WiFi communication technologies, and transportation and mobility infrastructures. The multiscale nature and complexity of these networks are crucial features in understanding and managing the networks. The accessibility of new data and the advances in the theory and modeling of complex networks are providing an integrated framework that brings us closer to achieving true predictive power of the behavior of techno-social systems.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                11 November 2019
                Article
                1911.04633

                http://arxiv.org/licenses/nonexclusive-distrib/1.0/

                Custom metadata
                10 pages, 9 figures
                physics.soc-ph cs.SI

                Social & Information networks, General physics

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