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      Enfermedad Inflamatoria Intestinal: Rectocolitis Úlcerosa Idiopática y Enfermedad de Crohn

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          Abstract

          Objetivo General Este artículo proporciona una revisión de la Enfermedad inflamatoria Intestinal, su fisiopatología, manifestaciones intestinales y extraintestinales, evaluación de la actividad de la enfermedad , complicaciones comunes, diagnóstico y los principios generales que guían el manejo y tratamiento de los pacientes. Introducción La Enfermedad Inflamatoria Intestinal (EII) comprende un grupo de trastornos inflamatorios intestinales crónicos de etiología desconocida, que incluye a la Rectocolitis Úlcerosa Idiopática (RCUI) y la Enfermedad de Crohn (EC) como las dos enfermedades más importantes de este grupo. Ambas se caracterizan por la aparición de una inflamación aguda recurrente, que afecta en grado y extensión variables las capas y segmentos del intestino, con diversas manifestaciones clínicas tanto digestivas como extra digestivas que, con frecuencia, siguen un curso recidivante. La RCUI afecta al recto y colon y se caracteriza por un proceso inflamatorio continuo de predominio mucoso. La EC es un proceso inflamatorio transmural y discontinuo que puede afectar de forma segmentaria a todo el tubo digestivo, desde la boca hasta el ano.1,2, 3,4

          Translated abstract

          Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) comprises a group of chronic intestinal inflammatory disorders of unknown etiology, which includes Ulcerative Colitis Idiopathic (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) as the two most important diseases of this group. Both are characterized by the appearance of recurrent acute inflammation, which affects the degree and extent variables layers and segments of the intestine, with various clinical manifestations both digestive and extra digestive often follow a relapsing course. UC affects the rectum and colon and is characterized by a continuous inflammatory process predominantly mucosal. The CD is a transmural inflammation and discontinuous segmental can affect the entire digestive tract from mouth to anus.

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          Most cited references97

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          Inflammatory bowel disease: clinical aspects and established and evolving therapies.

          Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are two idiopathic inflammatory bowel disorders. In this paper we discuss the current diagnostic approach, their pathology, natural course, and common complications, the assessment of disease activity, extraintestinal manifestations, and medical and surgical management, and provide diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms. We critically review the evidence for established (5-aminosalicylic acid compounds, corticosteroids, immunomodulators, calcineurin inhibitors) and emerging novel therapies--including biological therapies--directed at cytokines (eg, infliximab, adalimumab, certolizumab pegol) and receptors (eg, visilizumab, abatacept) involved in T-cell activation, selective adhesion molecule blockers (eg, natalizumab, MLN-02, alicaforsen), anti-inflammatory cytokines (eg, interleukin 10), modulation of the intestinal flora (eg, antibiotics, prebiotics, probiotics), leucocyte apheresis and many more monoclonal antibodies, small molecules, recombinant growth factors, and MAP kinase inhibitors targeting various inflammatory cells and pathways. Finally, we summarise the practical aspects of standard therapies including dosing, precautions, and side-effects.
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            Inflammatory bowel disease: epidemiology, pathogenesis, and therapeutic opportunities.

            S Hanauer (2005)
            Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), the primary constituents of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are precipitated by a complex interaction of environmental, genetic, and immunoregulatory factors. Higher rates of IBD are seen in northern, industrialized countries, with greater prevalence among Caucasians and Ashkenazic Jews. Racial gaps are closing, indicating that environmental factors may play a role. IBD is multigenic, with the most clearly established genetic link between certain NOD2 variants and CD. Regardless of the underlying genetic predisposition, a growing body of data implicates a dysfunctional mucosal immune response to commensal bacteria in the pathogenesis of IBD, especially CD. Possible triggers include a chronic inflammatory response precipitated by infection with a particular pathogen or virus or a defective mucosal barrier. The characteristic inflammatory response begins with an infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages, which then release chemokines and cytokines. These in turn exacerbate the dysfunctional immune response and activate either TH1 or TH2 cells in the gut mucosa, respectively associated with CD and, less conclusively, with UC. Elucidation of immunological and genetic factors indicate multiple points at which the inflammatory cascade may be interrupted, yielding the possibility of precise, targeted therapies for IBD.
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              Diagnostics of inflammatory bowel disease.

              The diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with its 2 main subforms, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is based on clinical, endoscopic, radiologic, and histologic criteria. This paradigm remains unchanged despite the advent of new molecular technologies for the examination of serum proteins and genetic sequences, respectively. The main innovations in diagnostic technologies include the development of more sophisticated endoscopic and noninvasive imaging techniques with the aim of improving the identification of complications, in particular malignant diseases associated with IBD. The future will see further progress in the identification of genetic susceptibility factors and of protein biomarkers and their use to describe the molecular epidemiology of IBD. It can be expected that future diagnostic algorithms will include molecular parameters to detect early disease or guide therapies by predicting the individual course of disease.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                gen
                Gen
                Gen
                Sociedad Venezolana de Gastroentereología (Caracas )
                0016-3503
                September 2012
                : 66
                : 3
                : 197-206
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidad del Zulia Venezuela
                Article
                S0016-35032012000300013
                7a0098a1-1703-4757-a744-8f59a5ed7fa1

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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                Product

                SciELO Venezuela

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0016-3503&lng=en

                Inflammatory Bowel Disease,Ulcerative Colitis Idiopathic,Crohn’s disease,Treatment,Enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal,Rectocolitis Ulcerosa Idiopática y Enfermedad de Crohn,Tratamiento

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