The Rivulidae fish family, which includes Neotropical seasonal killifishes, is one of the most diverse taxonomic groups in the aquatic systems of Caatinga in Brazil. Cynolebias and Hypsolebias genera, with 20 and 35 endemic species, respectively, concentrate the greatest diversity of rivulid species in the semiarid. Sixty-eight years after the first records of annual killifishes in the Mid-Northeastern Caatinga ecoregion (MNCE), only four valid species have been sampled in this area. Here we combined bibliographic surveys and recent samplings to investigate the distribution of seasonal rivulids in MNCE. Twenty-one records were obtained, nine of which are new localities, expanding the distribution of three species: Hypsolebias martinsi, H. antenori and Cynolebias microphthalmus. Hypsolebias longignatus is still only known from its type locality in Ceará, near the Environmental Protection Area in Pacoti River, and has not been sampled ever since its description in 2008. Among the four species present in MNCE, H. antenori is the only species occurring within the limits of a conservation unit in the Furna Feia National Park. Anthropogenic impacts were observed in most temporary habitats visited, which ranged from river channel to small ponds in cave entrances. All records are found in coastal basins that discharge in the northern coast of the MNCE, in Ceará and Rio Grande do Norte states, which are crucial for the conservation of the Caatinga’s killifishes. The results also evidenced the importance of karstic habitats in the Jandaíra Formation as potential biotopes for seasonal fish in MNCE. This information must be used to update the conservation status of these species and highlight the importance of strategies for preserving the Caatinga’s temporary aquatic habitats, which should be considered for environmental licensing purposes.