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      Eculizumab-induced reversal of dialysis-dependent kidney failure from C3 glomerulonephritis

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          Abstract

          C3 glomerulopathy (C3G) is characterized by C3 deposits with minimal immunoglobulin deposition caused by alternative complement pathway dysregulation. Unfortunately, no therapeutic intervention has consistently improved outcomes for patients with C3G. Eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody to C5, is currently the only approved complement-specific agent with some efficacy in the treatment of C3 glomerulonephritis (C3GN). Here, we describe a patient with acute crescentic C3GN with no identified complement mutation or family history of renal disease who required dialysis for 6 months. Five months after initiation of eculizumab, she became dialysis independent, showing improvement is possible after adequate time on eculizumab.

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          C3 glomerulopathy: consensus report

          C3 glomerulopathy is a recently introduced pathological entity whose original definition was glomerular pathology characterized by C3 accumulation with absent or scanty immunoglobulin deposition. In August 2012, an invited group of experts (comprising the authors of this document) in renal pathology, nephrology, complement biology, and complement therapeutics met to discuss C3 glomerulopathy in the first C3 Glomerulopathy Meeting. The objectives were to reach a consensus on: the definition of C3 glomerulopathy, appropriate complement investigations that should be performed in these patients, and how complement therapeutics should be explored in the condition. This meeting report represents the current consensus view of the group.
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            Eculizumab for dense deposit disease and C3 glomerulonephritis.

            The principle defect in dense deposit disease and C3 glomerulonephritis is hyperactivity of the alternative complement pathway. Eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody that binds to C5 to prevent formation of the membrane attack complex, may prove beneficial. In this open-label, proof of concept efficacy and safety study, six subjects with dense deposit disease or C3 glomerulonephritis were treated with eculizumab every other week for 1 year. All had proteinuria >1 g/d and/or AKI at enrollment. Subjects underwent biopsy before enrollment and repeat biopsy at the 1-year mark. The subjects included three patients with dense deposit disease (including one patient with recurrent dense deposit disease in allograft) and three patients with C3 glomerulonephritis (including two patients with recurrent C3 glomerulonephritis in allograft). Genetic and complement function testing revealed a mutation in CFH and MCP in one subject each, C3 nephritic factor in three subjects, and elevated levels of serum membrane attack complex in three subjects. After 12 months, two subjects showed significantly reduced serum creatinine, one subject achieved marked reduction in proteinuria, and one subject had stable laboratory parameters but histopathologic improvements. Elevated serum membrane attack complex levels normalized on therapy and paralleled improvements in creatinine and proteinuria. Clinical and histopathologic data suggest a response to eculizumab in some but not all subjects with dense deposit disease and C3 glomerulonephritis. Elevation of serum membrane attack complex before treatment may predict response. Additional research is needed to define the subgroup of dense deposit disease/C3 glomerulonephritis patients in whom eculizumab therapy can be considered.
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              C3 glomerulopathy: a new classification.

              Several distinct pathological patterns of glomerular inflammation are associated with abnormal regulation of the complement system, specifically, with dysregulation of the alternative pathway of the complement system. However, these conditions share the pathological finding of complement C3 (C3) deposited within the glomerulus in the absence of substantial immunoglobulin. This finding has alerted us and others to the possible presence of genetic and acquired complement dysregulation in individual patients. This article summarizes our current understanding of the relationship between dysregulation of the complement system and glomerular inflammation. Here, we suggest that glomerular pathologies that are characterized by the isolated deposition of C3 could usefully be classified by the term C3 glomerulopathy. In our view, this classification would alert the pathologist and nephrologist to the importance of screening for acquired and genetic abnormalities in complement regulation. In the future, it could help to identify individuals who might benefit from therapeutic inhibition of the complement system.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Clin Kidney J
                Clin Kidney J
                ckj
                ndtplus
                Clinical Kidney Journal
                Oxford University Press
                2048-8505
                2048-8513
                August 2015
                15 June 2015
                15 June 2015
                : 8
                : 4
                : 445-448
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, University of Alabama at Birmingham , Birmingham, AL, USA
                [2 ]Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham , Birmingham, AL, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Eric Wallace; E-mail: mainman@ 123456uabmc.edu
                Article
                sfv044
                10.1093/ckj/sfv044
                4515899
                © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com

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                Categories
                Contents
                Glomerular Nephropathies

                Nephrology

                end-stage renal disease, eculizumab, complement, c3 glomerulopathy, alternative pathway

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