0
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Amebic liver abscess by Entamoeba histolytica

      review-article

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Amebic liver abscesses (ALAs) are the most commonly encountered extraintestinal manifestation of human invasive amebiasis, which results from Entamoeba histolytica ( E. histolytica) spreading extraintestinally. Amebiasis can be complicated by liver abscess in 9% of cases, and ALAs led to almost 50000 fatalities worldwide in 2010. Although there have been fewer and fewer cases in the past several years, ALAs remain an important public health problem in endemic areas. E. histolytica causes both amebic colitis and liver abscess by breaching the host’s innate defenses and invading the intestinal mucosa. Trophozoites often enter the circulatory system, where they are filtered in the liver and produce abscesses, and develop into severe invasive diseases such as ALAs. The clinical presentation can appear to be colitis, including upper-right abdominal pain accompanied by a fever in ALA cases. Proper diagnosis requires nonspecific liver imaging as well as detecting anti- E. histolytica antibodies; however, these antibodies cannot be used to distinguish between a previous infection and an acute infection. Therefore, diagnostics primarily aim to use PCR or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect E. histolytica. ALAs can be treated medically, and percutaneous catheter drainage is only necessary in approximately 15% of cases. The indicated treatment is to administer an amebicidal drug (such as tinidazole or metronidazole) and paromomycin or other luminal cysticidal agent for clinical disease. Prognosis is good with almost universal recovery. Establishing which diagnostic methods are most efficacious will necessitate further analysis of similar clinical cases.

          Related collections

          Most cited references64

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Role of the microbiota in immunity and inflammation.

          The microbiota plays a fundamental role on the induction, training, and function of the host immune system. In return, the immune system has largely evolved as a means to maintain the symbiotic relationship of the host with these highly diverse and evolving microbes. When operating optimally, this immune system-microbiota alliance allows the induction of protective responses to pathogens and the maintenance of regulatory pathways involved in the maintenance of tolerance to innocuous antigens. However, in high-income countries, overuse of antibiotics, changes in diet, and elimination of constitutive partners, such as nematodes, may have selected for a microbiota that lack the resilience and diversity required to establish balanced immune responses. This phenomenon is proposed to account for some of the dramatic rise in autoimmune and inflammatory disorders in parts of the world where our symbiotic relationship with the microbiota has been the most affected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Immune modulation by bacterial outer membrane vesicles.

            Gram-negative bacteria shed extracellular outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) during their normal growth both in vitro and in vivo. OMVs are spherical, bilayered membrane nanostructures that contain many components found within the parent bacterium. Until recently, OMVs were dismissed as a by-product of bacterial growth; however, findings within the past decade have revealed that both pathogenic and commensal bacteria can use OMVs to manipulate the host immune response. In this Review, we describe the mechanisms through which OMVs induce host pathology or immune tolerance, and we discuss the development of OMVs as innovative nanotechnologies.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: found
              Is Open Access

              Liver abscess: diagnostic and management issues found in the low resource setting

              Abstract Introduction Liver abscesses are mainly caused by parasitic or bacterial infection and are an important cause of hospitalization in low-middle income countries (LMIC). The pathophysiology of abscesses is different depending on the etiology and requires different strategies for diagnosis and management. This paper discusses pathophysiology and epidemiology, the current diagnostic approach and its limitations and management of liver abscess in low resource settings. Sources of data We searched PubMed for relevant reviews by typing the following keywords: ‘amoebic liver abscess’ and ‘pyogenic liver abscess’. Areas of agreement Amoebic liver abscess can be treated medically while pyogenic liver abscess usually needs to be percutaneously drained and treated with effective antibiotics. Areas of controversy In an LMIC setting, where misuse of antibiotics is a recognized issue, liver abscesses are a therapeutic conundrum, leaving little choices for treatment for physicians in low capacity settings. Growing points As antimicrobial resistance awareness and antibiotic stewardship programs are put into place, liver abscess management will likely improve in LMICs provided that systematic adapted guidelines are established and practiced. Areas timely for developing research The lack of a quick and reliable diagnostic strategy in the majority of LMIC makes selection of appropriate treatment challenging.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                World J Clin Cases
                WJCC
                World Journal of Clinical Cases
                Baishideng Publishing Group Inc
                2307-8960
                26 December 2022
                26 December 2022
                : 10
                : 36
                : 13157-13166
                Affiliations
                Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Juntendo University Nerima Hospital, Nerima 177-8521, Tokyo, Japan. d.usuda.qa@ 123456juntendo.ac.jp
                Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Juntendo University Nerima Hospital, Nerima 177-8521, Tokyo, Japan
                Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Juntendo University Nerima Hospital, Nerima 177-8521, Tokyo, Japan
                Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Juntendo University Nerima Hospital, Nerima 177-8521, Tokyo, Japan
                Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Juntendo University Nerima Hospital, Nerima 177-8521, Tokyo, Japan
                Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Juntendo University Nerima Hospital, Nerima 177-8521, Tokyo, Japan
                Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Juntendo University Nerima Hospital, Nerima 177-8521, Tokyo, Japan
                Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Juntendo University Nerima Hospital, Nerima 177-8521, Tokyo, Japan
                Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Juntendo University Nerima Hospital, Nerima 177-8521, Tokyo, Japan
                Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Juntendo University Nerima Hospital, Nerima 177-8521, Tokyo, Japan
                Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Juntendo University Nerima Hospital, Nerima 177-8521, Tokyo, Japan
                Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Juntendo University Nerima Hospital, Nerima 177-8521, Tokyo, Japan
                Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Juntendo University Nerima Hospital, Nerima 177-8521, Tokyo, Japan
                Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Juntendo University Nerima Hospital, Nerima 177-8521, Tokyo, Japan
                Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Juntendo University Nerima Hospital, Nerima 177-8521, Tokyo, Japan
                Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Juntendo University Nerima Hospital, Nerima 177-8521, Tokyo, Japan
                Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Juntendo University Nerima Hospital, Nerima 177-8521, Tokyo, Japan
                Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Juntendo University Nerima Hospital, Nerima 177-8521, Tokyo, Japan
                Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Juntendo University Nerima Hospital, Nerima 177-8521, Tokyo, Japan
                Department of Sports Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Juntendo University, Bunkyo 113-8421, Tokyo, Japan
                Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Juntendo University Nerima Hospital, Nerima 177-8521, Tokyo, Japan
                Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Juntendo University Nerima Hospital, Nerima 177-8521, Tokyo, Japan
                Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Juntendo University Nerima Hospital, Nerima 177-8521, Tokyo, Japan
                Author notes

                Author contributions: Usuda D wrote the manuscript; Tsuge S, Sakurai R, Kawai K, Matsubara S, Tanaka R, Suzuki M, Shimozawa S, Takano H, Hotchi Y, Tokunaga S, Osugi I, Katou R, Ito S, Asako S, Mishima K, Kondo A, Mizuno K, Takami H, Komatsu T, Oba J, Nomura T, and Sugita M proofread and revised the manuscript; All authors approved the final version to be published.

                Corresponding author: Daisuke Usuda, MD, MSc, PhD, Associate Professor, Doctor, Senior Lecturer, Staff Physician, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Juntendo University Nerima Hospital, 3-1-10, Takanodai, Nerima 177-8521, Tokyo, Japan. d.usuda.qa@ 123456juntendo.ac.jp

                Article
                jWJCC.v10.i36.pg13157
                10.12998/wjcc.v10.i36.13157
                9851013
                36683647
                7a12b6fc-7813-49ce-9387-b87b5240e2ed
                ©The Author(s) 2022. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.

                This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: https://creativecommons.org/Licenses/by-nc/4.0/

                History
                : 7 August 2022
                : 1 November 2022
                : 8 December 2022
                Categories
                Minireviews

                amebic liver abscess,entamoeba histolytica,polymerase chain reaction,enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,percutaneous catheter drainage,amebicidal drug

                Comments

                Comment on this article