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      Classroom bullying norms and peer status: Effects on victim-oriented and bully-oriented defending

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          Abstract

          Defending a victimized peer is a socially risky behavior that may require high peer status and may depend on how popular or disliked bullies are in the classroom (i.e., within-classroom correlations between bullying and status). Past research has investigated defending as a unidimensional construct, though it can involve confronting the bully (bully-oriented defending) or supporting the victim (victim-oriented defending). This study used multilevel modeling to examine the effects of individual peer status, gender, and bullying as well as two indicators of classroom norms—the bullying-popularity norm and the bullying-rejection norm—on both types of defending. Our sample included 1,460 Dutch adolescents (50% girls; M age 11 years) from 59 classrooms in 50 schools. Likability and popularity were positively associated with both types of defending. Being female and lower in bullying was associated with victim-oriented defending, whereas being male and higher in bullying was associated with bully-oriented defending. In classrooms where bullies were more rejected, both types of defending were more prevalent, and the positive associations of likability and popularity with victim-oriented defending were stronger. The positive effect of the bullying-rejection norm on victim-oriented defending was stronger for girls. Moreover, the effect of popularity on bully-oriented defending was stronger in classrooms where bullies were less popular.

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          A review of sex differences in peer relationship processes: potential trade-offs for the emotional and behavioral development of girls and boys.

          Theory and research on sex differences in adjustment focus largely on parental, societal, and biological influences. However, it also is important to consider how peers contribute to girls' and boys' development. This article provides a critical review of sex differences in several peer relationship processes, including behavioral and social-cognitive styles, stress and coping, and relationship provisions. The authors present a speculative peer-socialization model based on this review in which the implications of these sex differences for girls' and boys' emotional and behavioral development are considered. Central to this model is the idea that sex-linked relationship processes have costs and benefits for girls' and boys' adjustment. Finally, the authors present recent research testing certain model components and propose approaches for testing understudied aspects of the model.
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            Centering predictor variables in cross-sectional multilevel models: a new look at an old issue.

            Appropriately centering Level 1 predictors is vital to the interpretation of intercept and slope parameters in multilevel models (MLMs). The issue of centering has been discussed in the literature, but it is still widely misunderstood. The purpose of this article is to provide a detailed overview of grand mean centering and group mean centering in the context of 2-level MLMs. The authors begin with a basic overview of centering and explore the differences between grand and group mean centering in the context of some prototypical research questions. Empirical analyses of artificial data sets are used to illustrate key points throughout. The article provides a number of practical recommendations designed to facilitate centering decisions in MLM applications. Copyright 2007 APA, all rights reserved.
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              Computational Tools for Probing Interactions in Multiple Linear Regression, Multilevel Modeling, and Latent Curve Analysis

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                International Journal of Behavioral Development
                International Journal of Behavioral Development
                SAGE Publications
                0165-0254
                1464-0651
                September 2022
                December 23 2019
                September 2022
                : 46
                : 5
                : 401-410
                Affiliations
                [1 ]University of Turku, Finland
                [2 ]Utrecht University, the Netherlands
                Article
                10.1177/0165025419894722
                7a1d8417-3261-498d-86f8-2477777f1949
                © 2022

                http://journals.sagepub.com/page/policies/text-and-data-mining-license


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