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      Computer-Based Test to Quantify the Pulfrich Stereophenomenon

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          Abstract

          Background:Many eye and brain diseases may induce a spontaneous Pulfrich phenomenon (PP), a stereoillusion leading to misjudgments of objects moving in a frontoparallel plane. Since, until now, no simple PP quantification method has been available, a computer pendulum (CP) system was developed and evaluated. Methods: In 5 normal subjects, PP was induced with different neutral density filters. The resulting retardations were measured with the gold standard (a mechanical pendulum; MP), and compared to a CP, allowing the generation of interocular image phase shifts. Results: A high correlation between MP and CP was found (r = 0.97, p < 0.001; slope 0.91, p > 0.1 for difference with slope 1.0). A multiple linear regression showed a significant influence of the filter density and the subject tested. The type of pendulum (MP or CP) and the side on which the filter was held were nonsignificant. Conclusions: A CP allowing an interocular image phase shift can be used as an alternative to a MP for quantification of a PP. Thus, this principle would allow the development of software or an Internet-based test for PP quantification. However, in some subjects, the CP will overestimate and in others underestimate the real retardation measured with the MP.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Delayed visual evoked response in optic neuritis.

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            The magnitude of the Pulfrich stereophenomenon as a function of binocular differences of intensity at various levels of illumination.

             A LIT (1949)
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              A physiological correlate of the Pulfrich effect in cortical neurons of the cat.

              When a swinging pendulum is viewed with a light-attenuating filter before one eye, the pendulum bob is perceived to move in an elliptical path in depth. It is believed that the filter causes this illusion, the Pulfrich effect, by delaying processing of the image in the filtered eye relative to that of the unfiltered eye. We sought a physiological correlate of this effect by studying binocular integration in cortical neurons of cats while they viewed moving stimuli. Special attention was focused on single unit disparity tuning because it is widely believed that depth perception is related to the responses of disparity selective neurons in visual cortex. We found that placing a filter before one of the cat's eyes produced a temporal delay in the cortical response. The temporal delay was always associated with a shift in the neuron's spatial disparity tuning. The observed temporal delays and disparity shifts are comparable with the magnitude of the Pulfrich effect in humans.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                OPH
                Ophthalmologica
                10.1159/issn.0030-3755
                Ophthalmologica
                S. Karger AG
                0030-3755
                1423-0267
                2009
                October 2009
                03 July 2009
                : 223
                : 6
                : 357-361
                Affiliations
                aLaboratory for Experimental Oculography and bDepartment of Strabismology and Neuro-Ophthalmology, Kantonsspital, St. Gallen, and cUniversity of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; dDepartment of Computer Science, University of Münster, Münster, Germany
                Article
                227132 Ophthalmologica 2009;223:357–361
                10.1159/000227132
                19590250
                © 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 28, Pages: 5
                Categories
                New Technologies in Ophthalmology

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