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      Flow diverter effect of LVIS stent on cerebral aneurysm hemodynamics: a comparison with Enterprise stents and the Pipeline device

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          Abstract

          Background

          The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of the new Low-profile Visualized Intraluminal Support (LVIS®D) device and the difference of fluid diverting effect compared with the Pipeline device and the Enterprise stent using computational fluid dynamics (CFD).

          Methods

          In this research, we simulated three aneurysms constructed from 3D digital subtraction angiography (DSA). The Enterprise, LVIS and the Pipeline device were virtually conformed to fit into the vessel lumen and placed across the aneurysm orifice. Computational fluid dynamics analysis was performed to compare the hemodynamic differences such as WSS, Velocity and Pressure among these stents.

          Results

          Control referred to the unstented model, the percentage of hemodynamic changes were all compared to Control. A single LVIS stent caused more wall shear stress reduction than double Enterprise stents (39.96 vs. 30.51 %) and velocity (23.13 vs. 18.64 %). Significant reduction in wall shear stress (63.88 %) and velocity (46.05 %) was observed in the double-LVIS stents. A single Pipeline showed less reduction in WSS (51.08 %) and velocity (37.87 %) compared with double-LVIS stent. The double-Pipeline stents resulted in the most reduction in WSS (72.37 %) and velocity (54.26 %). Moreover, the pressure increased with minuscule extent after stenting, compared with the unstented model.

          Conclusions

          This is the first study analyzing flow modifications associated with LVIS stents. We found that the LVIS stent has certain hemodynamic effects on cerebral aneurysms: a single LVIS stent caused more flow reductions than the double-Enterprise stent but less than a Pipeline device. Nevertheless, the double-LVIS stent resulted in a better flow diverting effect than a Pipeline device.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms with flow diverters: a meta-analysis.

           H Cloft,  H Murad,  D Kallmes (2013)
          Flow diverters are important tools in the treatment of intracranial aneurysms. However, their impact on aneurysmal occlusion rates, morbidity, mortality, and complication rates is not fully examined. We conducted a systematic review of the literature searching multiple databases for reports on the treatment of intracranial aneurysms with flow-diverter devices. Random effects meta-analysis was used to pool outcomes of aneurysmal occlusion rates at 6 months, and procedure-related morbidity, mortality, and complications across studies. A total of 29 studies were included in this analysis, including 1451 patients with 1654 aneurysms. Aneurysmal complete occlusion rate was 76% (95% confidence interval [CI], 70%-81%). Procedure-related morbidity and mortality were 5% (95% CI, 4%-7%) and 4% (95% CI, 3%-6%), respectively. The rate of postoperative subarachnoid hemorrhage was 3% (95% CI, 2%-4%). Intraparenchymal hemorrhage rate was 3% (95% CI, 2%-4%). Perforator infarction rate was 3% (95% CI, 1%-5%), with significantly lower odds of perforator infarction among patients with anterior circulation aneurysms compared with those with posterior circulation aneurysms (odds ratio, 0.01; 95% CI, 0.00-0.08; P<0.0001). Ischemic stroke rate was 6% (95% CI, 4%-9%), with significantly lower odds of perforator infarction among patients with anterior circulation aneurysms compared with those with posterior circulation aneurysms (odds ratio, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.08-0.27; P<0.0001). This meta-analysis suggests that treatment of intracranial aneurysms with flow-diverter devices is feasible and effective with high complete occlusion rates. However, the risk of procedure-related morbidity and mortality is not negligible. Patients with posterior circulation aneurysms are at higher risk of ischemic stroke, particularly perforator infarction. These findings should be considered when considering the best therapeutic option for intracranial aneurysms.
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            Complex hemodynamics at the apex of an arterial bifurcation induces vascular remodeling resembling cerebral aneurysm initiation.

            Arterial bifurcation apices are common sites for cerebral aneurysms, raising the possibility that the unique hemodynamic conditions associated with flow dividers predispose the apical vessel wall to aneurysm formation. This study sought to identify the specific hemodynamic insults that lead to maladaptive vascular remodeling associated with aneurysm development and to identify early remodeling events at the tissue and cellular levels. We surgically created new branch points in the carotid vasculature of 6 female adult dogs. In vivo angiographic imaging and computational fluid dynamics simulations revealed the detailed hemodynamic microenvironment for each bifurcation, which were then spatially correlated with histologic features showing specific tissue responses. We observed 2 distinct patterns of vessel wall remodeling: (1) hyperplasia that formed an intimal pad at the bifurcation apex and (2) destructive remodeling in the adjacent region of flow acceleration that resembled the initiation of an intracranial aneurysm, characterized by disruption of the internal elastic lamina, loss of medial smooth muscle cells, reduced proliferation of smooth muscle cells, and loss of fibronectin. Strong localization of aneurysm-type remodeling to the region of accelerating flow suggests that a combination of high wall shear stress and a high gradient in wall shear stress represents a "dangerous" hemodynamic condition that predisposes the apical vessel wall to aneurysm formation.
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              Pipeline embolization device (PED) for neurovascular reconstruction: initial experience in the treatment of 101 intracranial aneurysms and dissections

              Introduction The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the recently available flow diverter “pipeline embolization device” (PED) for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms and dissections. Methods Eighty-eight consecutive patients underwent an endovascular treatment of 101 intracranial aneurysms or dissections using the PED between September 2009 and January 2011. The targeted vessels include 79 (78%) in the anterior circulation and 22 (22%) in the posterior circulation. We treated 96 aneurysms and 5 vessel dissections. Multiple devices were implanted in 67 lesions (66%). Results One technical failure of the procedure was encountered. Immediate exclusion of the target lesion was not observed. Angiographic follow-up examinations were carried out in 80 patients (91%) with 90 lesions and revealed complete cure of the target lesion(s) in 47 (52%), morphological improvement in 32 lesions (36%), and no improvement in 11 lesions (12%). Six major complications were encountered: one fatal aneurysm rupture, one acute and one delayed PED thrombosis, and three hemorrhages in the dependent brain parenchyma. Conclusion Our experience reveals that the PED procedure is technically straightforward for the treatment of selected wide-necked saccular aneurysms, fusiform aneurysms, remnants of aneurysms, aneurysms with a high likelihood of failure with conventional endovascular techniques, and dissected vessels. While vessel reconstruction, performed after dissection, is achieved within days, remodeling of aneurysmal dilatations may take several months. Dual platelet inhibition is obligatory. Parenchymal bleeding into brain areas dependent on the target vessel is uncommon.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                crystal0628ever@163.com
                tzhbin@126.com
                jianliu_ns@163.com
                linkai_jing@163.com
                npaliwal@buffalo.edu
                szwang@fudan.edu.cn
                yingzhang829@163.com
                jxiang2@buffalo.edu
                asiddiqui@ubns.com
                huimeng@buffalo.edu
                yang-xj@163.net
                Journal
                J Transl Med
                J Transl Med
                Journal of Translational Medicine
                BioMed Central (London )
                1479-5876
                2 July 2016
                2 July 2016
                2016
                : 14
                Affiliations
                [ ]Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute and Beijing Tian Tan Hospital, Capital Medical University, TiantanXili 6, Dongcheng District, Beijing, China
                [ ]Department of Neurosurgery, The Affiliated Hospital, Binzhou Medical University, Binzhou, Shandong China
                [ ]Toshiba Stroke and Vascular Research Center, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY USA
                [ ]Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY USA
                [ ]Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
                [ ]Department of Neurosurgery, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY USA
                Article
                959
                10.1186/s12967-016-0959-9
                4930570
                27370946
                © The Author(s) 2016

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001809, National Natural Science Foundation of China;
                Award ID: 81171079
                Award ID: 81471167
                Award ID: 81220108007
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: Special Research Project for Capital Health Development
                Award ID: 2014-1-1071
                Award Recipient :
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                © The Author(s) 2016

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