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      Precision Science on Incidence and Progression of Early-Detected Small Breast Invasive Cancers by Mammographic Features

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          The aim was to evaluate how the inter-screening interval affected the performance of screening by mammographic appearances. This was a Swedish retrospective screening cohort study with information on screening history and mammography features in two periods (1977–1985 and 1996–2010). The pre-clinical incidence and the mean sojourn time (MST) for small breast cancer allowing for sensitivity by mammographic appearances were estimated. The percentage of interval cancer against background incidence (I/E ratio) was used to assess the performance of mammography screening by different inter-screening intervals. The sensitivity-adjusted MSTs (in years) were heterogeneous with mammographic features, being longer for powdery and crushed stone-like calcifications (4.26, (95% CI, 3.50–5.26)) and stellate masses (3.76, (95% CI, 3.15–4.53)) but shorter for circular masses (2.65, (95% CI, 2.06–3.55)) in 1996–2010. The similar trends, albeit longer MSTs, were also noted in 1977–1985. The I/E ratios for the stellate type were 23% and 32% for biennial and triennial screening, respectively. The corresponding figures were 32% and 43% for the circular type and 21% and 29% for powdery and crushed stone-like calcifications, respectively. Mammography-featured progressions of small invasive breast cancer provides a new insight into personalized quality assurance, surveillance, treatment and therapy of early-detected breast cancer.

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          Most cited references 38

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          New developments in the search for susceptibility alleles in complex disorders provide support for the possibility of a polygenic approach to the prevention and treatment of common diseases. We examined the implications, both for individualized disease prevention and for public health policy, of findings concerning the risk of breast cancer that are based on common genetic variation. Our analysis suggests that the risk profile generated by the known, common, moderate-risk alleles does not provide sufficient discrimination to warrant individualized prevention. However, useful risk stratification may be possible in the context of programs for disease prevention in the general population. The clinical use of single, common, low-penetrance genes is limited, but a few susceptibility alleles may distinguish women who are at high risk for breast cancer from those who are at low risk, particularly in the context of population screening. 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            Comparison of digital mammography alone and digital mammography plus tomosynthesis in a population-based screening program.

            To assess cancer detection rates, false-positive rates before arbitration, positive predictive values for women recalled after arbitration, and the type of cancers detected with use of digital mammography alone and combined with tomosynthesis in a large prospective screening trial.
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              Digital breast tomosynthesis with 3D images might overcome some of the limitations of conventional 2D mammography for detection of breast cancer. We investigated the effect of integrated 2D and 3D mammography in population breast-cancer screening.

                Author and article information

                Cancers (Basel)
                Cancers (Basel)
                10 July 2020
                July 2020
                : 12
                : 7
                [1 ]Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei City 100, Taiwan; d06849009@ (R.W.-J.C.); bacilli65@ (C.-Y.H.)
                [2 ]Department of Medical Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei City 100, Taiwan; d99849010@
                [3 ]School of Oral Hygiene, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei City 110, Taiwan; amyyen@ (A.M.-F.Y.); samchen@ (S.L.-S.C.)
                [4 ]Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology, Umeå University, 90187 Umeå, Sweden; wendy.wu@
                [5 ]Department of Health Industry Management, College of Healthcare Management, Kainan University, Taoyuan City 338, Taiwan; jeanfann@
                [6 ]Department of Mammography, Falun Central Hospital, 791823 Falun, Sweden; laszlo@
                [7 ]Center for Cancer Screening, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA; robert.smith@
                [8 ]Centre for Cancer Prevention, Queen Mary University of London, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, UK; s.w.duffy@
                [9 ]Department of Health Care Management, College of Management, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan City 333, Taiwan
                [10 ]Division of Hepatogastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung City 833, Taiwan
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: sherrychiu@ (S.Y.-H.C.); chenlin@ (H.-H.C.); Tel.: +886-3-2118800 (ext. 5250) (S.Y.-H.C.); +886-2-33668033 (H.-H.C.)
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (



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