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      High Serum Procalcitonin Concentrations in Patients With Hemorrhagic Fever With Renal Syndrome Caused by Hantaan Virus

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          Objective: This study analyzed the significance of procalcitonin (PCT) in patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) caused by Hantaan virus.

          Methods: The demographics and clinical and laboratory data including PCT at hospital admission in 146 adults with HFRS were retrospectively analyzed.

          Results: PCT level was significantly higher in severe patients ( n = 72) than in mild patients ( n = 74, p < 0.001) and independently associated with disease severity (OR 2.544, 95% CI 1.330–4.868, p = 0.005). PCT had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) value of 0.738 (95% CI 0.657–0.820, p < 0.001) for predicting severity. PCT level was significantly increased in patients with bacterial infection ( n = 87) compared with those without (n = 59, p = 0.037) and associated with bacterial infection (OR 1.685, 95% CI 1.026–2.768, p = 0.039). The AUC value of PCT for predicting bacterial infection was 0.618 (95% CI 0.524–0.711, p = 0.016). PCT level was significantly elevated in non-survivors ( n = 13) compared with survivors ( n = 133, p < 0.001) and independently associated with mortality (OR 1.075, 95% CI 1.003–1.152, p = 0.041). The AUC value of PCT for predicting mortality was 0.819 (95% CI 0.724–0.914, p < 0.001).

          Conclusion: PCT concentrations at admission would be predictive of disease severity, secondary bacterial infection and mortality in patients with HFRS caused by Hantaan virus.

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          Most cited references 44

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          A global perspective on hantavirus ecology, epidemiology, and disease.

          Hantaviruses are enzootic viruses that maintain persistent infections in their rodent hosts without apparent disease symptoms. The spillover of these viruses to humans can lead to one of two serious illnesses, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. In recent years, there has been an improved understanding of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and natural history of these viruses following an increase in the number of outbreaks in the Americas. In this review, current concepts regarding the ecology of and disease associated with these serious human pathogens are presented. Priorities for future research suggest an integration of the ecology and evolution of these and other host-virus ecosystems through modeling and hypothesis-driven research with the risk of emergence, host switching/spillover, and disease transmission to humans.
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            Hantaviruses: a global disease problem.

            Hantaviruses are carried by numerous rodent species throughout the world. In 1993, a previously unknown group of hantaviruses emerged in the United States as the cause of an acute respiratory disease now termed hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Before than, hantaviruses were known as the etiologic agents of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, a disease that occurs almost entirely in the Eastern Hemisphere. Since the discovery of the HPS-causing hantaviruses, intense investigation of the ecology and epidemiology of hantaviruses has led to the discovery of many other novel hantaviruses. Their ubiquity and potential for causing severe human illness make these viruses an important public health concern; we reviewed the distribution, ecology, disease potential, and genetic spectrum.
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              Isolation of the etiologic agent of Korean Hemorrhagic fever.

              Lung tissues from 73 rodents (Apodemus agrarius coreae) gave specific immunofluorescent reactions when they reacted with sera from patients convalescing from Korean hemorrhagic fever. Similar staaining was observed in the lungs of A. agrarius inoculated with acute-phase sera obtained from two patients with this disease. The unidentified agent was successfully propagated in adult A. agrarius through eight passages representing a cumulative dilution of greater than 10(-17). Experimentally inoculated rodents developed specific fluorescent antigen in the lung, kidney, liver, parotid glands, and bladder. Organs, especially lungs, were positive beginning 10 days and continuing through 69 days after inoculation. The agent could not be cultivated in several types of cell cultures nor in laboratory animals. No fluorescence was observed when infected A. agrarius lung tissues were reacted with antisera to Marburg virus, Ebola virus, and serval arenaviruses. Diagnostic increases in immunofluorescent antibodies occurred in 113 of 116 severe and 11 of 34 milder cases of clinically suspected Korean hemorrhagic fever. Antibodies were present during the first week of symptoms, reached a peak at the end of the second week, and persisted for up to 14 years. Convalescent-phase sera from four persons suffering a similar disease in the Soviet Union were also positive for antibodies.

                Author and article information

                Front Cell Infect Microbiol
                Front Cell Infect Microbiol
                Front. Cell. Infect. Microbiol.
                Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                07 May 2018
                : 8
                Department of Infectious Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University , Xi'an, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Jianming Qiu, University of Kansas Medical Center, United States

                Reviewed by: Xiaohong Shi, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom; Baoming Liu, Johns Hopkins Medicine, United States

                *Correspondence: Zhengwen Liu liuzhengwen113@
                Copyright © 2018 Fan, Deng, Sang, Li, Zhang, Han and Liu.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 8, Equations: 0, References: 49, Pages: 10, Words: 8185
                Original Research


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