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      Effect of Conscientiousness on Social Loafing Among Male and Female Chinese University Students


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          This study investigated the differences between Chinese female and male university students regarding the relationship between conscientiousness, interpersonal relationships, and social loafing. By analyzing these relationships, this study interpreted how personality, mediators, and gender differences affect social loafing. In total, 827 Chinese university students were recruited from three universities in Xi’an, Shaanxi, China. Students completed an online questionnaire, which included a conscientiousness scale, an interpersonal relationship scale, and a social loafing scale. Structural equation modeling was performed to test the validity of the measurement scales, mediating effects, and group differences. The findings revealed that the relationship between conscientiousness, interpersonal relationships, and social loafing differed between female and male Chinese university students. Interpersonal relationships served as a partial mediator in the relationship between conscientiousness and social loafing among female students. Interpersonal relationships did not play a mediating role in the relationship between conscientiousness and social loafing among male students. We suggest that university administrators should promote cooperation among Chinese university students.

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          For over 30 years, this text has provided students with the information they need to understand and apply multivariate data analysis. This text provides an applications-oriented introduction to multivariate analysis for the non-statistician. By reducing heavy statistical research into fundamental concepts, the text explains to students how to understand and make use of the results of specific statistical techniques. In this revision, the organization of the chapters has been greatly simplified. New chapters have been added on structural equations modeling, and all sections have been updated to reflect advances in technology, capability, and mathematical techniques. :Pearson New International Edition.
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            This article evaluates theories of the origins of sex differences in human behavior. It reviews the cross-cultural evidence on the behavior of women and men in nonindustrial societies, especially the activities that contribute to the sex-typed division of labor and patriarchy. To explain the cross-cultural findings, the authors consider social constructionism, evolutionary psychology, and their own biosocial theory. Supporting the biosocial analysis, sex differences derive from the interaction between the physical specialization of the sexes, especially female reproductive capacity, and the economic and social structural aspects of societies. This biosocial approach treats the psychological attributes of women and men as emergent given the evolved characteristics of the sexes, their developmental experiences, and their situated activity in society.
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              Is Open Access

              Gender Differences in Personality across the Ten Aspects of the Big Five

              This paper investigates gender differences in personality traits, both at the level of the Big Five and at the sublevel of two aspects within each Big Five domain. Replicating previous findings, women reported higher Big Five Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism scores than men. However, more extensive gender differences were found at the level of the aspects, with significant gender differences appearing in both aspects of every Big Five trait. For Extraversion, Openness, and Conscientiousness, the gender differences were found to diverge at the aspect level, rendering them either small or undetectable at the Big Five level. These findings clarify the nature of gender differences in personality and highlight the utility of measuring personality at the aspect level.

                Author and article information

                Asia-Pacific Edu Res
                The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher
                Springer Nature Singapore (Singapore )
                15 May 2023
                : 1-11
                [1 ]GRID grid.443692.e, ISNI 0000 0004 0617 4511, Department of Educational Management, International College, , Krirk University, ; 43/1111 Ram-Indra Road, KM.1, Bang Khen, Bangkok, 10220 Thailand
                [2 ]GRID grid.443615.1, ISNI 0000 0004 1797 7790, Education Science College, , Weinan Normal University, ; Weinan, China
                Author information
                © De La Salle University 2023, Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted research re-use and secondary analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of COVID-19 as a global pandemic.

                : 7 May 2023
                Regular Article

                conscientiousness,interpersonal relationships,social loafing,multiple-group analysis


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