3
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Cardiovascular Disease in the Setting of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Background:

          Since the introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART), the life expectancy and health quality for patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) have significant-ly improved. Nevertheless, as a result of not only the deleterious effects of the virus itself and pro-longed ART, but also the effects of aging, cardiovascular diseases have emerged as one of the most common causes of death among these patients.

          Objective:

          The purpose of this review is to explore the new insights on the spectrum of Cardiovascu-lar Disease (CVD) in HIV infection, with emphasis on the factors that contribute to the atherosclerot-ic process and its role in the development of acute coronary syndrome in the setting of infection.

          Methods:

          A literature search using PubMed, ScienceDirect and Web of Science was performed. Ar-ticles up to Mar, 2017, were selected for inclusion. The search was conducted using MeSH terms, with the following key terms: [human immunodeficiency virus AND (cardiovascular disease OR coronary heart disease) AND (antiretroviral therapy AND (cardiovascular disease OR coronary heart disease))].

          Results:

          Clinical cardiovascular disease tends to appear approximately 10 years before in infected in-dividuals, when compared to the general population. The pathogenesis behind the cardiovascular, HIV-associated complications is complex and multifactorial, involving traditional CVD risk factors, as well as factors associated with the virus itself - immune activation and chronic inflammation – and the metabolic disorders related to ART regimens.

          Conclusion:

          Determining the cardiovascular risk among HIV-infected patients, as well as targeting and treating conditions that predispose to CVD, are now emerging concerns among physicians.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 94

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: found
          Is Open Access

          Inflammation, Coagulation and Cardiovascular Disease in HIV-Infected Individuals

          Background The SMART study was a trial of intermittent use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) (drug conservation [DC]) versus continuous use of ART (viral suppression [VS]) as a strategy to reduce toxicities, including cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We studied the predictive value of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and D-dimer with CVD morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients who were enrolled in SMART beyond other measured CVD risk factors. Methods A blood sample was available in 5098 participants who were enrolled in the SMART study for the measurement of IL-6, hsCRP and D-dimer. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% CI for CVD events were estimated for each quartile (Q) for each biomarker vs the 1st quartile and for 1 SD higher levels. For both treatment groups combined, unadjusted and adjusted HRs were determined using Cox regression models. Results There were 252 participants who had a CVD event over a median follow-up of 29 months. Adjusted HRs (95% CI) for CVD for Q4 vs Q1 were 4.65 (2.61, 8.29), 2.10 (1.40, 3.16), and 2.14 (1.38, 3.33) for IL-6, hsCRP and D-dimer, respectively. Associations were similar for the DC and VS treatment groups (interaction p-values were >0.30). The addition of the three biomarkers to a model that included baseline covariates significantly improved model fit (p<0.001). Area under the curve (AUC) estimates improved with inclusion of the three biomarkers in a model that included baseline covariates corresponding to other CVD risk factors and HIV factors (0.741 to 0.771; p<0.001 for difference). Conclusions In HIV-infected individuals, IL-6, hsCRP and D-dimer are associated with an increased risk of CVD independent of other CVD risk factors. Further research is needed to determine whether these biomarkers can be used to improve CVD risk prediction among HIV positive individuals.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Cardiovascular disease risk factors in HIV patients--association with antiretroviral therapy. Results from the DAD study.

            To determine the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among HIV-infected persons, and to investigate any association between such risk factors, stage of HIV disease, and use of antiretroviral therapies. Baseline data from 17,852 subjects enrolled in DAD, a prospective multinational cohort study initiated in 1999. Cross-sectional analyses of CVD risk factors at baseline. The data collected includes data on demographic variables, cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, body mass index, stage of HIV infection, antiretroviral therapy. Almost 25% of the study population were at an age where there is an appreciable risk of CVD, with those receiving a protease inhibitor (PI) and/or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) tending to be older. 1.4% had a previous history of CVD and 51.5% were cigarette smokers. Increased prevalence of elevated total cholesterol (> or = 6.2 mmol/l) was observed among subjects receiving an NNRTI but no PI [odds ratio (OR), 1.79; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.45-2.22], PI but no NNRTI (OR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.92-2.87), or NNRTI + PI (OR, 5.48; 95% CI, 4.34-6.91) compared to the prevalence among antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive subjects. Subjects who have discontinued ART as well as subjects receiving nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors had similar cholesterol levels to treatment-naive subjects. Higher CD4 cell count, lower plasma HIV RNA levels, clinical signs of lipodystrophy, longer exposure times to NNRTI and PI, and older age were all also associated with elevated total cholesterol level. HIV-infected persons exhibit multiple known risk factors for CVD. Of specific concern is the fact that use of the NNRTI and PI drug classes (alone and especially in combination), particularly among older subjects with normalized CD4 cell counts and suppressed HIV replication, was associated with a lipid profile known to increase the risk of coronary heart disease.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Associations between HIV infection and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis.

              Coronary artery disease (CAD) has been associated with HIV infection, but data are not consistent.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Curr Cardiol Rev
                Curr Cardiol Rev
                CCR
                Current Cardiology Reviews
                Bentham Science Publishers
                1573-403X
                1875-6557
                February 2018
                February 2018
                : 14
                : 1
                : 25-41
                Affiliations
                Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Porto University, Al. Prof. Hernâni Monteiro 4200-319, , Porto , Portugal
                Author notes
                [* ]Address correspondence to this author at the Faculty of Medicine, Porto University, Al. Prof. Hernâni Monteiro 4200-319, Porto, Portugal; 
Tel: 00351 917674547; E-mail: mimed10185@ 123456med.up.pt
                Article
                CCR-14-25
                10.2174/1573403X13666171129170046
                5872259
                29189172
                © 2018 Bentham Science Publishers

                This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-NC 4.0) ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/legalcode), which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Article

                Comments

                Comment on this article