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      Electrocardiographic Findings according to Sex in Athletes and Controls

      , , ,

      Cardiology

      S. Karger AG

      Electrocardiogram, Athletes, Population, normal, Sex

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          Abstract

          We have previously compared the electrocardiogram of 1,299 male and female students of physical education and sports with 151 age- and sex-matched sedentary controls and found that the former had lower heart rate, longer conduction times and increased voltages. The same material of 1,450 young adult subjects was split according to sex into 617 females and 833 males in order to analyze the influence of gender on the resting 12-lead electrocardiogram. We found that females had a significant higher heart rate, shortened conduction times (PQ, Q, ventricular activation time and QRS) and a prolonged repolarization time (QT<sub>C</sub>), decreased P, Q and T amplitudes as well as indices of right, septal and left hypertrophy, and ST elevation in precordial leads were lower in females than in males. These differences were highly significant with p values < 0.0001 for almost all parameters. Sinus bradycardia was more common in men and sinus tachycardia in women. The prevalence of other rhythms and supraventricular and ventricular premature beats was low in both sexes. AV block grade I was found in 1 % of females and 3% of males (p < 0.02). Notching of R/S in V<sub>1</sub> – V<sub>2</sub> and incomplete right bundle branch block were less common in females (p < 0.0001). The differences in ECG parameters between the two sexes in the total material persisted also when the athletic and control groups were investigated separately. Gender seems to be highly important for most ECG parameters in the resting ECG. This points to the necessity of discussing different upper normal limits for ECG parameters according to gender.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          CRD
          Cardiology
          10.1159/issn.0008-6312
          Cardiology
          S. Karger AG
          0008-6312
          1421-9751
          1991
          1991
          12 November 2008
          : 79
          : 3
          : 227-236
          Affiliations
          Medical Department B, Rikshospitalet, Central Laboratory, Ullevaal Hospital, University of Oslo, Norsk Hydro and the Norwegian College of Physical Education and Sports, Oslo, Norway
          Article
          174882 Cardiology 1991;79:227–236
          10.1159/000174882
          1769038
          © 1991 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Pages: 10
          Categories
          Exercise and Cardiac Rehabilitation

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