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      CAPD-Associated Peritonitis Caused by Alcaligenes xylosoxidans sp. xylosoxidans

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          Alcaligenes xylosoxidans is an uncommon cause of peritonitis in patients on maintenance continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Peritonitis caused by A. xylosoxidans usually carries a poor prognosis because of the pathogen’s virulence and its universal resistance to most antimicrobial agents. Even after early Tenckhoff catheter removal, the transport property of the peritoneum is often irreversibly damaged, leading to permanent technique failure. We report 2 patients with CAPD-associated peritonitis due to A. xylosoxidans sp. xylosoxidans who were successfully cured with a combination of piperacillin and tazobactam. One of them subsequently returned uneventfully to CAPD.

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          Recurrent Achromobacter xylosoxidans bacteremia associated with persistent lymph node infection in a patient with hyper-immunoglobulin M syndrome.

          Achromobacter xylosoxidans (formerly Alcaligenes xylosoxidans) is a rare but important cause of bacteremia in immunocompromised patients, and strains are usually multiply resistant to antimicrobial therapy. We report an immunocompromised patient with hyper-immunoglobulin M syndrome who suffered from 14 documented episodes of A. xylosoxidans bacteremia. Each episode was treated and resulted in rapid clinical improvement, with blood cultures testing negative for bacteria. Between episodes, A. xylosoxidans was isolated from an excised right axillary lymph node, whereas the culture of the central venous catheter, removed at the same time, was negative. Multiple cultures from sputum, stool, and urine samples, as well as from gastrointestinal biopsies or environmental sources, were negative. Results from antibiotic sensitivity testing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis suggested that a single strain of A. xylosoxidans caused the recurrent bacteremias in this patient; this strain originated from persistently infected lymph nodes. Lymphoid hyperplasia is a prominent characteristic of hyper-IgM syndrome and may serve as a source of bacteremia with low-pathogenicity organisms.
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            Alcaligenes xylosoxidans and Propionibacterium acnes postoperative endophthalmitis in a pseudophakic eye.

            To report a case of persistent polymicrobial postoperative endophthalmitis caused by Alcaligenes xylosoxidans and Propionibacterium acnes in a pseudophakic eye. A. xylosoxidans is a gram-negative bacteria resistant to most antibiotics. Case report. A 72-year-old man presented with clinical signs of endophthalmitis on the first postoperative day after a phacoemulsification procedure with posterior chamber intraocular lens, left eye. Initial treatment included topical, subconjunctival, and oral antibiotics. After initial clearing, there was recrudescence of infection on postoperative day 37 that prompted referral of the patient to the Cullen Eye Institute. Treatment at that time included anterior chamber and vitreous taps with intravitreal antibiotic injections. Complete pars plana vitrectomy and intraocular lens explantation were eventually required because of persistent infection with a resistant organism. Cultures from the first procedure grew A. xylosoxidans and P. acnes. Cultures from the vitrectomy grew only A. xylosoxidans. At the final follow-up visit 6 months after the initial procedure. The eye was without inflammation with best-corrected visual acuity of 20/40. Both A. xylosoxidans and P. acnes can cause chronic progressive endophthalmitis after cataract extraction often resistant to corrective antibiotic therapy. Successful intervention may require complete vitrectomy with intraocular lens and capsule removal.
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              Peritoneal Dialysis-Associated Peritonitis Caused by Alcaligenes xylosoxidans

              Despite significant progress to decrease its incidence, peritonitis remains the main source of morbidity and treatment failure in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The majority of cases of peritonitis result from infection with aerobic gram-positive (Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus) , or gram-negative organisms. Less common organisms that are also reported include anaerobic bacteria, fungi, and mycobacteria, which collectively account for less than 10% of isolates cultured. We report a case of peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis, and review the literature on peritonitis caused by Alcaligenes species. Alcaligenes xylosoxidans is a nonfermenting gram-negative rod and opportunistic pathogen that is motile with peritrichous flagella. The clinical features and microbiological data of our case, as well as the other previously reported cases of peritonitis caused by Alcaligenes species show no particular pattern of peritoneal dialysate cell count. However, the rate of recurrence of peritonitis is characteristically high. The cause of such a high rate of recurrence of peritonitis is probably a reflection of the predilection of Alcaligenes species to cause infection in the ‘sicker’ patients, and the almost universal resistance of this species to most antimicrobial agents. We, therefore, recommend that catheter removal be undertaken as early as the identification of the organism is made. Whether patients should be allowed to return to CAPD after recovery is a more difficult question. We suggest that a reevaluation of the patient’s overall status be undertaken, including personal hygiene, exchange technique, presence of diabetes mellitus, malnutrition, and/or other factors that may render the patient more prone to infection with opportunistic pathogens.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                December 2001
                28 December 2001
                : 21
                : 6
                : 502-506
                Departments of aMedicine and bMicrobiology, Queen Mary Hospital, University of Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China
                46657 Am J Nephrol 2001;21:502–506
                © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 1, References: 20, Pages: 5
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