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      Angiotensin II Receptor Modulation of Renal Vascular Resistance and Neurotransmission in Young and Adult Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

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          Background/Aims: Angiotensin (Ang) II modulates vascular resistance and sympathetic neurotransmission through Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptors. Recent studies reported an involvement of AT2 receptors. We investigated whether AT2 receptors participate in modulation of vascular resistance and sympathetic neurotransmission in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Methods: Kidneys of 6- and 16-week-old normotensive (WKY) and SHR were isolated and perfused. Results: Noradrenaline release induced by renal nerve stimulation (RNS) was increased in SHR (WKY: 1,837 ± 128, SHR: 2,310 ± 192 pg/g). Ang I- and II-induced pressor responses and enhancement of noradrenaline release were greater in SHR than in WKY. Pressor responses to Ang I and II were greater in adult compared with young SHR. The AT1 receptor antagonist EXP3174 (0.1 µ M) blocked Ang I- and II-induced renal vasoconstriction and noradrenaline release to RNS in both strains. In contrast, the selective AT2 receptor antagonist PD 123319 (1 µ M) had no influence in young and adult WKY and SHR. Conclusion: Ang I and II had a greater impact on renal vascular resistance and neurotransmission in SHR, which was more pronounced in adult SHR. All effects are mediated by the AT1 receptor and no modulatory influence of the AT2 receptor could be found.

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          Most cited references 7

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          Chronic blockade of AT2-subtype receptors prevents the effect of angiotensin II on the rat vascular structure.

          Angiotensin II (Ang II) is both a vasoactive and a potent growth-promoting factor for vascular smooth muscle cells. Little is known about the in vivo contribution of AT1 and AT2 receptor activation to the biological action of Ang II. Therefore, we investigated the effect of AT1 or AT2 subtype receptor chronic blockade by losartan or PD123319 on the vascular hypertrophy in rats with Ang II-induced hypertension. Normotensive rats received for 3 wk subcutaneous infusions of Ang II (120 ng/kg per min), or Ang II + PD 123319 (30 mg/kg per d), or Ang II + losartan (10 mg/kg per d) or PD 123319 alone, and were compared with control animals. In normotensive animals, chronic blockade of AT2 receptors did not affect the plasma level of angiotensin II and the vascular reactivity to angiotensin II mediated by the AT1 receptor. Chronic blockade of AT1I in rats receiving Ang II resulted in normal arterial pressure, but it induced significant aortic hypertrophy and fibrosis. Chronic blockade of AT2 receptors in Ang II-induced hypertensive rats had no effect on arterial pressure, but antagonized the effect of Ang II on arterial hypertrophy and fibrosis, suggesting that in vivo vasotrophic effects of Ang II are at least partially mediated via AT2 subtype receptors.
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            Angiotensin II AT(1) and AT(2) receptors contribute to maintain basal adrenomedullary norepinephrine synthesis and tyrosine hydroxylase transcription.

            Angiotensin II (Ang II) AT(1) receptors have been proposed to mediate the Ang II-dependent and the stress-stimulated adrenomedullary catecholamine synthesis and release. However, in this tissue, most of the Ang II receptors are of the AT(2) type. We asked the question whether AT(1) and AT(2) receptors regulate basal catecholamine synthesis. Long-term AT(1) receptor blockade decreased adrenomedullary AT(1) receptor binding, AT(2) receptor binding and AT(2) receptor protein, rat tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA, norepinephrine (NE) content, Fos-related antigen 2 (Fra-2) protein, phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (pCREB), and ERK2. Long-term AT(2) receptor blockade decreased AT(2) receptor binding, TH mRNA, NE content and Fra-2 protein, although not affecting AT(1) receptor binding or receptor protein, pCREB or ERK2. Angiotensin II colocalized with AT(1) and AT(2) receptors in ganglion cell bodies. AT(2) receptors were clearly localized to many, but not all, chromaffin cells. Our data support the hypothesis of an AT(1)/AT(2) receptor cross-talk in the adrenomedullary ganglion cells, and a role for both receptor types on the selective regulation of basal NE, but not epinephrine formation, and in the regulation of basal TH transcription. Whereas AT(1) and AT(2) receptors involve the Fos-related antigen Fra-2, AT(1) receptor transcriptional effects include pCREB and ERK2, indicating common as well as different regulatory mechanisms for each receptor type.
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              Effects of angiotensin-(1-7) and other bioactive components of the renin-angiotensin system on vascular resistance and noradrenaline release in rat kidney


                Author and article information

                Kidney Blood Press Res
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                December 2004
                11 January 2005
                : 28
                : 1
                : 20-26
                Department of Internal Medicine I, Marienhospital Herne, Ruhr University Bochum, Herne, Germany
                81020 Kidney Blood Press Res 2005;28:20–26
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 5, References: 21, Pages: 7
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