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      Systematic Literature Review of AbobotulinumtoxinA in Clinical Trials for Blepharospasm and Hemifacial Spasm

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          Abstract

          Background

          The aim was to elucidate clinical trial efficacy, safety, and dosing practices of abobotulinumtoxinA (ABO) treatment in adult patients with blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. To date, most literature reviews for blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm have examined the effectiveness of all botulinum neurotoxin type A products as a class. However, differences in dosing units and recommended schemes provide a clear rationale for reviewing each product separately.

          Methods

          A systematic literature review was performed to identify randomized controlled trials and other comparative clinical studies of ABO in the treatment of blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm published in English between January 1991 and March 2015. Medical literature databases (PubMed, Cochrane library, EMBASE) were searched. A total of five primary publications that evaluated ABO for the management of blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm were identified and summarized.

          Results

          Data included 374 subjects with blepharospasm and 172 subjects with hemifacial spasm treated with ABO. Total ABO doses ranged between 80 and 340 U for blepharospasm and 25 and 85 U for hemifacial spasm, depending on the severity of the clinical condition. All studies showed statistically significant benefits for the treatment of blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. ABO was generally well tolerated across the individual studies. Adverse events considered to be associated with ABO treatment included: ptosis, tearing, blurred vision, double vision, dry eyes, and facial weakness.

          Discussion

          These data from 5 randomized clinical studies represents the available evidence base of ABO in blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. Future studies in this area will add to this evidence base.

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          Most cited references20

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          Assessment: Botulinum neurotoxin for the treatment of movement disorders (an evidence-based review): report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology.

          To perform an evidence-based review of the safety and efficacy of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) in the treatment of movement disorders. A literature search was performed including MEDLINE and Current Contents for therapeutic articles relevant to BoNT and selected movement disorders. Authors reviewed, abstracted, and classified articles based on American Academy of Neurology criteria (Class I-IV). The highest quality literature available for the respective indications was as follows: blepharospasm (two Class II studies); hemifacial spasm (one Class II and one Class III study); cervical dystonia (seven Class I studies); focal upper extremity dystonia (one Class I and three Class II studies); focal lower extremity dystonia (one Class II study); laryngeal dystonia (one Class I study); motor tics (one Class II study); and upper extremity essential tremor (two Class II studies). Botulinum neurotoxin should be offered as a treatment option for the treatment of cervical dystonia (Level A), may be offered for blepharospasm, focal upper extremity dystonia, adductor laryngeal dystonia, and upper extremity essential tremor (Level B), and may be considered for hemifacial spasm, focal lower limb dystonia, and motor tics (Level C). While clinicians' practice may suggest stronger recommendations in some of these indications, evidence-based conclusions are limited by the availability of data.
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            The focal dystonias: current views and challenges for future research.

            The most common forms of dystonia are those that develop in adults and affect a relatively isolated region of the body. Although these adult-onset focal dystonias are most prevalent, knowledge of their etiologies and pathogenesis has lagged behind some of the rarer generalized dystonias, in which the identification of genetic defects has facilitated both basic and clinical research. This summary provides a brief review of the clinical manifestations of the adult-onset focal dystonias, focusing attention on less well understood clinical manifestations that need further study. It also provides a simple conceptual model for the similarities and differences among the different adult-onset focal dystonias as a rationale for lumping them together as a class of disorders while at the same time splitting them into subtypes. The concluding section outlines some of the most important research questions for the future. Answers to these questions are critical for advancing our understanding of this group of disorders and for developing novel therapeutics. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.
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              Evidence-based review and assessment of botulinum neurotoxin for the treatment of movement disorders.

              Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) can be injected to achieve therapeutic benefit across a large range of clinical conditions. To assess the efficacy and safety of BoNT injections for the treatment of certain movement disorders, including blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm, oromandibular dystonia, cervical dystonia, focal limb dystonias, laryngeal dystonia, tics, and essential tremor, an expert panel reviewed evidence from the published literature. Data sources included English-language studies identified via MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Current Contents, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Evidence tables generated in the 2008 Report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) review of the use of BoNT for movement disorders were also reviewed and updated. The panel evaluated evidence at several levels, supporting BoNT as a class, the serotypes BoNT-A and BoNT-B, as well as the four individual commercially available formulations: abobotulinumtoxinA (A/Abo), onabotulinumtoxinA (A/Ona), incobotulinumtoxinA (A/Inco), and rimabotulinumtoxinB (B/Rima). The panel ultimately made recommendations for each therapeutic indication, based upon the strength of clinical evidence and following the AAN classification scale. For the treatment of blepharospasm, the evidence supported a Level A recommendation for BoNT-A, A/Inco, and A/Ona; a Level B recommendation for A/Abo; and a Level U recommendation for B/Rima. For hemifacial spasm, the evidence supported a Level B recommendation for BoNT-A and A/Ona, a Level C recommendation for A/Abo, and a Level U recommendation for A/Inco and B/Rima. For the treatment of oromandibular dystonia, the evidence supported a Level C recommendation for BoNT-A, A/Abo, and A/Ona, and a Level U recommendation for A/Inco and B/Rima. For the treatment of cervical dystonia, the published evidence supported a Level A recommendation for all four BoNT formulations. For limb dystonia, the available evidence supported a Level B recommendation for both A/Abo and A/Ona, but no published studies were identified for A/Inco or B/Rima, resulting in a Level U recommendation for these two formulations. For adductor laryngeal dystonia, evidence supported a Level C recommendation for the use of A/Ona, but a Level U recommendation was warranted for B/Rima, A/Abo, and A/Inco. For the treatment of focal tics, a Level U recommendation was warranted at this time for all four formulations. For the treatment of tremor, the published evidence supported a level B recommendation for A/Ona, but no published studies were identified for A/Abo, A/Inco, or B/Rima, warranting a Level U recommendation for these three formulations. Further research is needed to address evidence gaps and to evaluate BoNT formulations where currently there is insufficient or conflicting clinical data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov (N Y)
                Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov (N Y)
                TOHM
                Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
                Columbia University Libraries/Information Services
                2160-8288
                2015
                30 October 2015
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Neurology, Loma Linda University Health, Loma Linda, CA, USA
                [2 ]Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy, Marshall B. Ketchum University, Fullerton, CA, USA
                [3 ]Department of Neurosciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
                [4 ]Department of Neurology, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA
                Yale University, USA
                Author notes
                *To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: kdashtipour@ 123456llu.edu
                Article
                10.7916/D8CJ8CVR
                4636029
                7a798296-2839-49f6-a146-0d079b90afbc

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution–Noncommerical–No Derivatives License, which permits the user to copy, distribute, and transmit the work provided that the original author and source are credited; that no commercial use is made of the work; and that the work is not altered or transformed.

                Page count
                Pages: 11
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