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      Functional effects of the TMEM43 Ser358Leu mutation in the pathogenesis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy

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          Abstract

          Background

          The Ser358Leu mutation in TMEM43, encoding an inner nuclear membrane protein, has been implicated in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). The pathogenetic mechanisms of this mutation are poorly understood.

          Methods

          To determine the frequency of TMEM43 mutations as a cause of ARVC, we screened 11 ARVC families for mutations in TMEM43 and five desmosomal genes previously implicated in the disease. Functional studies were performed in COS-7 cells transfected with wildtype, mutant, and 1:2 wildtype:mutant TMEM43 to determine the effect of the Ser358Leu mutation on the stability and cellular localization of TMEM43 and other nuclear envelope and desmosomal proteins, assessed by solubility assays and immunofluorescence imaging. mRNA expression was assessed of genes potentially affected by dysfunction of the nuclear lamina.

          Results

          Three novel mutations in previously documented desmosomal genes, but no mutations in TMEM43, were identified. COS-7 cells transfected with mutant TMEM43 exhibited no change in desmosomal stability. Stability and nuclear membrane localization of mutant TMEM43 and of lamin B and emerin were normal. Mutant TMEM43 did not alter the expression of genes located on chromosome 13, previously implicated in nuclear envelope protein mutations leading to skeletal muscular dystrophies.

          Conclusions

          Mutant TMEM43 exhibits normal cellular localization and does not disrupt integrity and localization of other nuclear envelope and desmosomal proteins. The pathogenetic role of TMEM43 mutations in ARVC remains uncertain.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Suppression of canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling by nuclear plakoglobin recapitulates phenotype of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.

          Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a genetic disease caused by mutations in desmosomal proteins. The phenotypic hallmark of ARVC is fibroadipocytic replacement of cardiac myocytes, which is a unique phenotype with a yet-to-be-defined molecular mechanism. We established atrial myocyte cell lines expressing siRNA against desmoplakin (DP), responsible for human ARVC. We show suppression of DP expression leads to nuclear localization of the desmosomal protein plakoglobin and a 2-fold reduction in canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling through Tcf/Lef1 transcription factors. The ensuing phenotype is increased expression of adipogenic and fibrogenic genes and accumulation of fat droplets. We further show that cardiac-restricted deletion of Dsp, encoding DP, impairs cardiac morphogenesis and leads to high embryonic lethality in the homozygous state. Heterozygous DP-deficient mice exhibited excess adipocytes and fibrosis in the myocardium, increased myocyte apoptosis, cardiac dysfunction, and ventricular arrhythmias, thus recapitulating the phenotype of human ARVC. We believe our results provide for a novel molecular mechanism for the pathogenesis of ARVC and establish cardiac-restricted DP-deficient mice as a model for human ARVC. These findings could provide for the opportunity to identify new diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets in patients with ARVC.
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            Lamin B1 is required for mouse development and nuclear integrity.

            Lamins are key structural components of the nuclear lamina, an intermediate filament meshwork that lies beneath the inner nuclear membrane. Lamins play a role in nuclear architecture, DNA replication, and gene expression. Mutations affecting A-type lamins have been associated with a variety of human diseases, including muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy, lipodystrophy, and progeria, but mutations in B-type lamins have never been identified in humans or in experimental animals. To investigate the in vivo function of lamin B1, the major B-type lamin, we generated mice with an insertional mutation in Lmnb1. The mutation resulted in the synthesis of a mutant lamin B1 protein lacking several key functional domains, including a portion of the rod domain, the nuclear localization signal, and the CAAX motif (the carboxyl-terminal signal for farnesylation). Homozygous Lmnb1 mutant mice survived embryonic development but died at birth with defects in lung and bone. Fibroblasts from mutant embryos grew under standard cell-culture conditions but displayed grossly misshapen nuclei, impaired differentiation, increased polyploidy, and premature senescence. Thus, the lamin B1 mutant mice provide evidence for a broad and nonredundant function of lamin B1 in mammalian development. These mutant mice and cell lines derived from them will be useful models for studying the role of the nuclear lamina in various cellular processes.
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              Compound and digenic heterozygosity contributes to arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.

              The aim of this study was to define the genetic basis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, characterized by right ventricular fibrofatty replacement and arrhythmias, causes sudden death. Autosomal dominant inheritance, reduced penetrance, and 7 desmosome-encoding causative genes are known. The basis of low penetrance is poorly understood. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy probands and family members were enrolled, blood was obtained, lymphoblastoid cell lines were immortalized, deoxyribonucleic acid was extracted, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of desmosome-encoding genes was performed, PCR products were sequenced, and diseased tissue samples were studied for intercellular junction protein distribution with confocal immunofluorescence microscopy and antibodies against key proteins. We identified 21 variants in plakophilin-2 (PKP2) in 38 of 198 probands (19%), including missense, nonsense, splice site, and deletion/insertion mutations. Pedigrees showed wide intra-familial variability (severe early-onset disease to asymptomatic individuals). In 9 of 38 probands, PKP2 variants were identified that were encoded in trans (compound heterozygosity). The 38 probands hosting PKP2 variants were screened for other desmosomal genes mutations; second variants (digenic heterozygosity) were identified in 16 of 38 subjects with PKP2 variants (42%), including desmoplakin (DSP) (n = 6), desmoglein-2 (DSG2) (n = 5), plakophilin-4 (PKP4) (n = 1), and desmocollin-2 (DSC2) (n = 1). Heterozygous mutations in non-PKP 2 desmosomal genes occurred in 14 of 198 subjects (7%), including DSP (n = 4), DSG2 (n = 5), DSC2 (n = 3), and junctional plakoglobin (JUP) (n = 2). All variants occurred in conserved regions; none was identified in 700 ethnic-matched control subjects. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated abnormalities of protein architecture. These data suggest that the genetic basis of ARVC includes reduced penetrance with compound and digenic heterozygosity. Disturbed junctional cytoarchitecture in subjects with desmosomal mutations confirms that ARVC is a disease of the desmosome and cell junction. Copyright 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BMC Med Genet
                BMC Med. Genet
                BMC Medical Genetics
                BioMed Central
                1471-2350
                2012
                29 March 2012
                : 13
                : 21
                Affiliations
                [1 ]UPMC Heart and Vascular Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
                [2 ]Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA
                [3 ]Department of Human Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
                [4 ]UPMC Heart and Vascular Institute, University of Pittsburgh, 200 Lothrop Street, Scaife Hall Suite S-558, Mail Stop HPU 01 05 05, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-2582, USA
                Article
                1471-2350-13-21
                10.1186/1471-2350-13-21
                3352248
                22458570
                Copyright ©2012 Rajkumar et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research Article

                Genetics

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