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      Spatio-Temporal Variation of Groundwater Quality and Source Apportionment Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques for the Hutuo River Alluvial-Pluvial Fan, China

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          Abstract

          Groundwater quality deterioration has become an environmental problem of widespread concern. In this study, we used a water quality index (WQI) and multivariate statistical techniques to assess groundwater quality and to trace pollution sources in the Hutuo River alluvial-pluvial fan, China. Measurement data of 17 variables in 27 monitoring sites from three field surveys were obtained and pretreated. Results showed that there were 53.09% of NO 3 , 18.52% of SO 4 2 and 83.95% of total hardness (TH) in samples that exceeded the Grade III standard for groundwater quality in China (GB/T 14848-2017). Based on WQI results, sampling sites were divided into three types: high-polluted sites, medium-polluted sites and low-polluted sites. The spatial variation in groundwater quality revealed that concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS), Cl , TH and NO 3 were the highest in high-polluted sites, followed by medium-polluted and low-polluted sites. The temporal variation in groundwater quality was controlled by the dilution of rainwater. A principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the primary pollution sources of groundwater were domestic sewage, industrial sewage and water–rock interactions in the dry season. However, in the rainy and transition seasons, the main pollution sources shifted to domestic sewage and water–rock interactions, nonpoint pollution and industrial sewage. According to the absolute principal component scores-multivariate linear regression (APCS-MLR), most water quality parameters were primarily influenced by domestic sewage. Therefore, in order to prevent the continuous deterioration of groundwater quality, the discharge of domestic sewage in the Hutuo River alluvial-pluvial fan region should be controlled.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Temporal evolution of groundwater composition in an alluvial aquifer (Pisuerga River, Spain) by principal component analysis

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            Present limitations and future prospects of stable isotope methods for nitrate source identification in surface- and groundwater.

            Nitrate (NO3(-)) contamination of surface- and groundwater is an environmental problem in many regions of the world with intensive agriculture and high population densities. Knowledge of the sources of NO3(-) contamination in water is important for better management of water quality. Stable nitrogen (delta15N) and oxygen (delta18O) isotope data of NO3(-) have been frequently used to identify NO3(-) sources in water. This review summarizes typical delta15N- and delta18O-NO3(-) ranges of known NO3(-) sources, interprets constraints and future outlooks to quantify NO3(-) sources, and describes three analytical techniques ("ion-exchange method", "bacterial denitrification method", and "cadmium reduction method") for delta15N- and delta18)O-NO3(-) determination. Isotopic data can provide evidence for the presence of dominant NO3(-) sources. However, quantification, including uncertainty assessment, is lacking when multiple NO3(-) sources are present. Moreover, fractionation processes are often ignored, but may largely constrain the accuracy of NO3(-) source identification. These problems can be overcome if (1) NO3(-) isotopic data are combined with co-migrating discriminators of NO3(-) sources (e.g. (11)B), which are not affected by transformation processes, (2) contributions of different NO3(-) sources can be quantified via linear mixing models (e.g. SIAR), and (3) precise, accurate and high throughput isotope analytical techniques become available.
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              Quaternary Aquifer of the North China Plain?assessing and achieving groundwater resource sustainability

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                ijerph
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                MDPI
                1661-7827
                1660-4601
                07 February 2020
                February 2020
                : 17
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Hebei and China Geological Survey Key Laboratory of Groundwater Remediation, Institute of Hydrogeology and Environmental Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Shijiazhuang 050061, China; zhangqianqian@ 123456mail.cgs.gov.cn (Q.Z.); whuiwei@ 123456mail.cgs.gov.cn (H.W.); wlijun@ 123456mail.cgs.gov.cn (L.W.)
                [2 ]School of Geology and Mining Engineering, Xinjiang University, Yanan Road, Urumqi 830047, China; wanglikang@ 123456mail.cgs.gov.cn
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: zhuxi@ 123456mail.cgs.gov.cn
                Article
                ijerph-17-01055
                10.3390/ijerph17031055
                7036757
                32046106
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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