Immunocytochemical procedures on thick, unembedded sections were used to visualize the neurons and their processes that contain LHRH-immunoreactive material in the rat central nervous system (CNS). In animals pretreated with colchicine (75 μg, intraventricularly), cell bodies could be observed as far anterior as the olfactory bulb and posterior to the retrochiasmatic area of the basal hypothalamus. Several new observations for the rat were made in this study, including LHRH neurons in the accessory olfactory bulb and other olfactory-related structures, and in the anterior hippocampus and the induseum griseum. As in studies from other laboratories, we observed many LHRH cells in the periventricular medial preoptic area, diagonal band of Broca and septal nuclei, and fewer positive cells in the anterior hypothalamic area and the region of the supraoptic commissure. The LHRH fibers from all of these cells are widely dispersed in the CNS. In addition to the dense innervation of the median eminence, positive fibers are found innervating other circumventricular organs, coursing close to the ependymal wall of the ventricular system or in close association with cerebral arteries and areas of the pia mater and subarachnoid space. LHRH fibers may also innervate neurons in several regions of the CNS. A novel projection of LHRH fibers for the rat was found originating from supracallosal neurons and coursing through both cingulate and neocortex. The possible distribution of efferents from each LHRH cell group is discussed.