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      Long Term Effect of Land Reclamation from Lake on Chemical Composition of Soil Organic Matter and Its Mineralization

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          Since the late 1950s, land reclamation from lakes has been a common human disturbance to ecosystems in China. It has greatly diminished the lake area, and altered natural ecological succession. However, little is known about its impact on the carbon (C) cycle. We conducted an experiment to examine the variations of chemical properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and C mineralization under four land uses, i.e. coniferous forest (CF), evergreen broadleaf forest (EBF), bamboo forest (BF) and cropland (CL) in a reclaimed land area from Taihu Lake. Soils and lake sediments (LS) were incubated for 360 days in the laboratory and the CO 2 evolution from each soil during the incubation was fit to a double exponential model. The DOM was analyzed at the beginning and end of the incubation using UV and fluorescence spectroscopy to understand the relationships between DOM chemistry and C mineralization. The C mineralization in our study was influenced by the land use with different vegetation and management. The greatest cumulative CO 2-C emission was observed in BF soil at 0–10 cm depth. The active C pool in EBF at 10–25 cm had longer (62 days) mean residence time (MRT). LS showed the highest cumulative CO 2-C and shortest MRT comparing with the terrestrial soils. The carbohydrates in DOM were positively correlated with CO 2-C evolution and negatively correlated to phenols in the forest soils. Cropland was consistently an outlier in relationships between DOM chemistry and CO 2-evolution, highlighting the unique effects that this land use on soil C cycling, which may be attributed the tillage practices. Our results suggest that C mineralization is closely related to the chemical composition of DOM and sensitive to its variation. Conversion of an aquatic ecosystem into a terrestrial ecosystem may alter the chemical structure of DOM, and then influences soil C mineralization.

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          An overview of the methods used in the characterisation of natural organic matter (NOM) in relation to drinking water treatment.

          Natural organic matter (NOM) is found in all surface, ground and soil waters. During recent decades, reports worldwide show a continuing increase in the color and NOM of the surface water, which has an adverse affect on drinking water purification. For several practical and hygienic reasons, the presence of NOM is undesirable in drinking water. Various technologies have been proposed for NOM removal with varying degrees of success. The properties and amount of NOM, however, can significantly affect the process efficiency. In order to improve and optimise these processes, the characterisation and quantification of NOM at different purification and treatment processes stages is important. It is also important to be able to understand and predict the reactivity of NOM or its fractions in different steps of the treatment. Methods used in the characterisation of NOM include resin adsorption, size exclusion chromatography (SEC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The amount of NOM in water has been predicted with parameters including UV-Vis, total organic carbon (TOC), and specific UV-absorbance (SUVA). Recently, methods by which NOM structures can be more precisely determined have been developed; pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS), multidimensional NMR techniques, and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). The present review focuses on the methods used for characterisation and quantification of NOM in relation to drinking water treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Fluorescence spectroscopic studies of natural organic matter fractions.

            Because of the well-known molecular complexity and heterogeneity of natural organic matter (NOM), an aquatic bulk NOM was fractionated into well-defined polyphenolic-rich and carbohydrate-rich subfractions. These fractions were systematically characterized by fluorescence emission, three dimensional excitation-emission matrices, and synchronous-scan excitation spectroscopy in comparison with those of the reference International Humic Substances Society soil humic acid and Suwannee River fulvic acid. Results indicate that fluorescence spectroscopy can be useful to qualitatively differentiate not only NOM compounds from varying origins but also NOM subcomponents with varying compositions and functional properties. The polyphenolic-rich NOM-PP fraction exhibited a much more intense fluorescence and a red shift of peak position in comparison with the carbohydrate-rich NOM-CH fraction. Results also indicate that synchronous excitation spectra were able to provide improved peak resolution and structural signatures such as peak positioning, shift, and intensity among various NOM components as compared with those of the emission and excitation spectra. In particular, the synchronous spectral peak intensity and its red shift in the region of about 450-480 nm may be used to indicate the presence or absence of high molecular weight and polycondensed humic organic components, or the multicomponent nature of NOM or NOM subcomponents.
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              Differentiating with fluorescence spectroscopy the sources of dissolved organic matter in soils subjected to drying

              The relative fluorescence, normalised on dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and a humification index, based on the location of the fluorescence emission spectra, were used to investigate the possible sources of the increase in dissolved organic matter (DOM) when a soil is dried. From these 2 parameters it could be seen that air drying resulted in a minor increase of more humified material in DOM while the effect of oven drying was mainly due to cell lysis.

                Author and article information

                Role: Editor
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                6 June 2014
                : 9
                : 6
                Faculty of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, and Key Laboratory of Forestry and Ecological Engineering of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
                Lakehead University, Canada
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: HR DH. Performed the experiments: DH. Analyzed the data: DH. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: DH. Wrote the paper: DH.


                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Pages: 13
                This study was supported by the MOST of China (973 Program No. 2012CB416904), the National Science Foundation of China (No. 31170417) and partially supported by PAPD and Collaborative Innovation plan of Jiangsu higher education, Doctorate Fellowship Foundation of Nanjing Forestry University. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Artificial Ecosystems
                Terrestrial Ecology
                Earth Sciences
                Carbon Sink
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Environmental Protection
                Soil Science
                Soil Ecology
                Physical Sciences
                Chemical Compounds
                Organic Compounds
                Environmental Chemistry
                Carbon Cycle
                Organic Chemistry
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Chromatographic Techniques
                Two-Dimensional Chromatography



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