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      Trends in Hospitalization Rate, Hospital Case Fatality, and Mortality Rate of Stroke by Subtype in Minneapolis-St. Paul, 1980–2002

      ,

      Neuroepidemiology

      S. Karger AG

      Stroke, Trends, Subarachnoid hemorrhage, Intraparenchymal hemorrhage

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          Abstract

          Background: The stroke mortality rates have been declining in the USA for decades. Less is known about trends in stroke incidence rates, but some studies indicate they have declined. The stroke case fatality has also been declining. Little information exists on trends in stroke subtypes. We examined trends in mortality, hospitalization rate, and hospital case fatality of stroke by subtype in the Minneapolis-St. Paul area from 1980 to 2002. Methods: We estimated hospitalization rates and case fatality for ≧30-year-olds with data from the Minnesota Hospital Association. We estimated mortality rates with counts from the Minnesota Department of Health. Rates were age adjusted to the US 2000 standard by the direct method using census estimates. We tested for significant trends using linear regression. Results: Total stroke mortality and hospital case fatality both declined by almost 50% over the study period, while the rate of stroke hospitalization was relatively stable. Ischemic stroke hospitalization rates increased, while hospital case fatality and mortality rates decreased. Subarachnoid hemorrhage in-hospital case fatality and mortality rates declined, while the hospitalization rate was stable. Intracerebral hemorrhage hospitalization rates increased minimally, hospital case fatality declined, and the mortality rate was stable. Conclusion: These data suggest that declines in total stroke case fatality are contributing most to declining mortality rates in the presence of stable total stroke attack rates.

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          Most cited references 13

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          Treatment of intracerebral haemorrhage.

          Apart from management in a specialised stroke or neurological intensive care unit, until very recently no specific therapies improved outcome after intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). In a recent phase II trial, recombinant activated factor VII (eptacog alfa) reduced haematoma expansion, mortality, and disability when given within 4 h of ICH onset; a phase III trial (the FAST trial) is now in progress. Ventilatory support, blood-pressure reduction, intracranial-pressure monitoring, osmotherapy, fever control, seizure prophylaxis, and nutritional supplementation are the cornerstones of supportive care in intensive care units. Ventricular drainage should be considered in all stuporous or comatose patients with intraventricular haemorrhage and acute hydrocephalus. Given the lack of benefit seen in a the recent STICH trial, emergency surgical evacuation within 72 h of onset should be reserved for patients with large (>3 cm) cerebellar haemorrhages, or those with large lobar haemorrhages, substantial mass effect, and rapidly deteriorating condition.
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            Accuracy of hospital discharge abstracts for identifying stroke.

            Much of the available data on stroke occurrence, service use, and cost of care originated with hospital discharge abstracts. This article uses the unique resources of the Rochester Epidemiology Project to estimate the sensitivity and positive predictive value of hospital discharge abstracts for incident stroke. The Rochester Stroke Registry was used to identify all confirmed first strokes (hospitalized and nonhospitalized) among Rochester residents for 1970, 1980, 1984, and 1989 (n = 364). The sensitivity of discharge abstracts was estimated by following these individuals for 12 months after stroke to determine the proportion assigned a discharge diagnosis of cerebrovascular disease (International Classification of Diseases [ICD] codes 430 through 438.9). The positive predictive value of discharge abstracts was assessed by identifying all hospitalizations of Rochester residents with an ICD code of 430-438.9 in 1970, 1980, and 1989 (n = 377). Events were categorized as incident stroke, recurrent stroke, stroke sequelae, or nonstroke after review of the complete community-based medical record by a neurologist. Only 86% (n = 313) of all first-stroke patients in 1970, 1980, 1984, and 1989 were hospitalized. Of hospitalized patients, only 76% were assigned a principal discharge diagnosis code of 430-438.9. Fatal strokes and those occurring during a hospitalization were less likely to be identified. Among all hospitalizations of Rochester residents in 1970, 1980, and 1989, there were 377 with a principal diagnosis code of 430-438.9. Less than half (n = 177) were determined by the neurologist to be incident stroke; only 60% (n = 225) were either incident or recurrent stroke. Comparison of alternative approaches showed the validity of discharge abstracts was enhanced by increasing the number of diagnoses and excluding codes with poor positive predictive value. This study provides previously unavailable estimates of the sensitivity of stroke-coded hospitalizations for a US community. A model for improving the sensitivity and positive predictive value of discharge abstracts is presented.
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              The decreasing incidence of primary intracerebral hemorrhage: a population study.

              This population study describes the experience with primary intracerebral hemorrhage (PIH) in residents of Rochester, MN, for the 32-year period from 1945 through 1976. The average annual age-adjusted incidence rate for PIH was 12.1 per 100,000 population, and the incidence for all cases of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage was 15.2 per 100,000. The PIH rates were higher for males than for females, and they increased steadily with age. When patients on long-term anticoagulant therapy were excluded, there was a steady decrease in the average annual age-adjusted incidence rate for PIH in each succeeding 8-year interval since 1945. Prehemorrhage hypertension, present overall in 89% of patients, was much more frequent and severe in the earlier years of the study. The frequency and severity of prehemorrhage hypertension also varied inversely with age in the population with PIH. The median age at the onset of PIH increased from 65 years for the period 1945 through 1952 to 71 years for 1969 through 1976.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NED
                Neuroepidemiology
                10.1159/issn.0251-5350
                Neuroepidemiology
                S. Karger AG
                0251-5350
                1423-0208
                2007
                February 2007
                08 December 2006
                : 28
                : 1
                : 39-45
                Affiliations
                Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn., USA
                Article
                97855 Neuroepidemiology 2007;28:39–45
                10.1159/000097855
                17164569
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, References: 30, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Paper

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