+1 Recommend
1 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found

      Effects of Chronic Hypoxia on Renal PDGF-A, PDGF-B, and VEGF Gene Expression in Rats

      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          Background: There is evidence from in vitro studies to suggest that the genes of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are, like the erythropoietin gene, regulated by oxygen tension. Hypoxia-induced stimulation of, for example, PDGF or VEGF might be involved in the pathogenesis of acute or chronic renal failure and in renal ‘inflammatory’ diseases (glomerulonephritis, vasculitis, allograft rejection). Methods: Male Wistar rats were exposed to chronic normobaric hypoxia (10% O<sub>2</sub>, 90% N<sub>2</sub>) for 4 weeks. Additional groups of rats were treated with the endothelin receptor antagonist LU13525 and the NO donor molsidomine. Renal mRNA levels of PDGF-A, PDGF-B, and VEGF were semiquantitated using RNase protection assays. Results: Renal gene expression of PDGF-A and PDGF-B was neither affected by 2 or 4 weeks of hypoxia nor by concomitant treatment with LU135252 or molsidomine. Chronic hypoxia did also not change VEGF gene expression; however, concomitant treatment with LU135252 increased all VEGF subtypes (188, 164, 120). Conclusions: The findings of the present study suggest that renal PDGF and VEGF gene expression in vivo during chronic hypoxia for 2 and 4 weeks is not sensitive to tissue hypoxia in contrast to cell culture experiments. During chronic hypoxia with concomitant blockade of endothelin receptors, all VEGF subtypes were increased, suggesting an inhibitory action of endothelins with regard to renal VEGF gene expression.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 4

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction.

          A new method of total RNA isolation by a single extraction with an acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform mixture is described. The method provides a pure preparation of undegraded RNA in high yield and can be completed within 4 h. It is particularly useful for processing large numbers of samples and for isolation of RNA from minute quantities of cells or tissue samples.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Vasoactive peptides modulate vascular endothelial cell growth factor production and endothelial cell proliferation and invasion.

            The proliferation of vascular endothelial cells (EC) is an important event in angiogenesis. The synthesis of the EC growth factor, vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF), is stimulated by a variety of activators; but the effects of important vasoactive peptides are not well understood, and there are no known natural inhibitors of VEGF production. We found that the vasoactive peptides endothelin (ET)-1 and ET-3 stimulated the synthesis of VEGF protein 3-4-fold in cultured human vascular smooth muscle cells, comparable in magnitude to hypoxia. ET-1 and ET-3 acted through the ETA and ETB receptors, respectively, and signaling through protein kinase C was important. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), C-type natriuretic peptide, and C-ANP-(4-23), a ligand for the natriuretic peptide clearance receptor, equipotently inhibited production of VEGF by as much as 88% and inhibited ET- or hypoxia-stimulated VEGF transcription. EC proliferation and invasion of matrix were stimulated by VEGF secreted into the medium by ET-incubated vascular smooth muscle cells. This was inhibited by ANP. Our results identify the natriuretic peptides as the first peptide inhibitors of VEGF synthesis and indicate a novel mechanism by which vasoactive peptides could modulate angiogenesis.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Carbon monoxide and nitric oxide suppress the hypoxic induction of vascular endothelial growth factor gene via the 5' enhancer.

              Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in angiogenesis and blood vessel remodeling. Its expression is up-regulated in vascular smooth muscle cells by a number of conditions, including hypoxia. Hypoxia increases the transcriptional rate of VEGF via a 28-base pair enhancer located in the 5'-upstream region of the gene. The gas molecules nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) are important vasodilating agents. We report here that these biological molecules can suppress the hypoxia-induced production of VEGF mRNA and protein in smooth muscle cells. In transient expression studies, both NO and CO inhibited the ability of the hypoxic enhancer we have previously identified to activate gene transcription. Furthermore, electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicated decreased binding of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) to this enhancer by nuclear proteins isolated from CO-treated cells, although HIF-1 protein levels were unaffected by CO. Given that both CO and NO activate guanylyl cyclase to produce cGMP and that a cGMP analog (8-Br-cGMP) showed a similar suppressive effect on the hypoxic induction of the VEGF enhancer, we speculate that the suppression of VEGF by these two gas molecules occurs via a cyclic GMP-mediated pathway.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                October 2000
                22 September 2000
                : 86
                : 2
                : 161-166
                Klinik und Poliklinik für Innere Medizin II, Klinikum der Universität Regensburg, Deutschland
                45735 Nephron 2000;86:161–166
                © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, References: 36, Pages: 6
                Self URI (application/pdf):
                Original Paper


                Comment on this article