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      Elevada circulación del genotipo F del virus de la hepatitis B en población infectada urbana no migratoria y migratoria de Venezuela

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          Abstract

          Introducción: Se ha demostrado ampliamente que el genotipo F del virus de la hepatitis B (VHB) es dominante en nuestra población Amerindia. Recientemente, nosotros identificamos que en los pacientes infectados por VHB habitantes no migratorios de áreas urbanas venezolanas prevalece también el genotipo F. Objetivo: Determinar los genotipos del VHB en portadores crónicos urbanos migratorios y compararlos con el grupo no migratorio. Material y Métodos: Se investigaron 136 portadores crónicos del VHB, 110 no inmigrantes y 26 inmigrantes de origen asiático. Se evaluaron antígeno eHB y anti-eHB y los genotipos del VHB, este último mediante PCR. Resultados: En los 110 pacientes urbanos venezolanos persistió la elevada frecuencia del genotipo F (95%) con 3 casos coinfectados, 2 por genotipos A+F y 1 caso con genotipos E+F. Interesantemente, 2 casos demostraron genotipo D del VHB. Hepatitis crónica B (HCB) antígeno-e positivo fue diagnosticada en 83 pacientes (80,6%) mientras 20 casos (19,4%) presentaron HCB antígeno-e negativo. En los pacientes asiáticos infectados con un solo genotipo se identificó el C en 11 casos, el B en 4 pacientes, el F en 3 y, en 1 caso, genotipo D. Se demostró coinfección entre estos diferentes genotipos, incluyendo un caso coinfectado con genotipo E. El genotipo F se encontró coinfectando a 4 pacientes, 2 de ellos con genotipo C. Doce casos presentaron HCB antígeno e positivo y 14 pacientes HCB antígeno e negativo. De los pacientes infectados con genotipo C, 7 de ellos (54%), incluyendo los 2 coinfectados con genotipo F, presentaron HCB antígeno-e negativo. Conclusión: Es notoria la elevada circulación del genotipo F del VHB en nuestras áreas urbanas. La distinta evolución de la HCB descrita para genotipo F y, la identificación de otros genotipos diferentes al F en áreas urbanas sugiere que, independientemente del origen geográfico del paciente, la inclusión de los genotipos del VHB debiera considerarse pauta en el manejo de la HCB en Venezuela.

          Translated abstract

          Introduction: It has been widely demonstrated that the genotype F of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is dominant in our Amerindian population. Recently, we identified that genotype F is prevalent in HBV non-migratory infected patients living in urban areas. Objective: To determine the genotypes of HBV in migratory chronic carriers compared to non-migratory population. Material and Methods: We investigated 136 chronic HBV carriers, 110 non-immigrants and 26 immigrants of Asian origin. We assessed hepatitis B e-antigen and antibody and HBV genotypes, the latter using PCR. Results: High prevalence (95%) of genotype F persisted among 110 Venezuelan urban patients, with 3 co-infected patients, 2 with genotypes A+F and 1 case with E+F. Interestingly, 2 cases showed HBV genotype D. Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) e-antigen positive was diagnosed in 83 patients (80.6%) while 20 cases (19.4%) showed CHB e-antigen negative. In Asian patients infected with one sole genotype, C was identified in 11 cases, B in 4 patients, F in 3, and in 1 case, genotype D. Co-infection was demonstrated among these different genotypes, including one case co-infected with genotype E. Genotype F was found in 4 co-infected patients, 2 with genotype C. Twelve cases had CHB e-antigen positive and 14 CHB e-antigen negative. From patients infected with genotype C, 7 of them (54%), including 2 co-infected with genotype F, demonstrated CHB e-antigen negative. Conclusion: It is remarkable the high circulation of HBV genotype F in our urban areas. However, given the distinct outcome described in CHB genotype F and the identification of other genotypes rather than F in urban areas, suggests that inclusion of HBV genotypes in Venezuela, should be considered standard in the management of CHB regardless the patient’s geographical origin.

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          The influence of hepatitis B virus genotype and subgenotype on the natural history of chronic hepatitis B.

          Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is associated with a high lifetime risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cirrhosis of the liver. To review the studies published to date regarding the association of HBV genotypes and subgenotypes in the development of adverse sequelae from HBV. Review of the literature for articles describing studies of HBV genotype/subgenotypes and development of HCC, cirrhosis, and liver-related death. Eight genotypes of HBV (A through H), which differ from each other in viral genome sequence by more than 8%, and multiple subgenotypes, which differ from each other by 4-8% have been identified. Recently, studies investigating the association between the risks of developing HCC and cirrhosis by specific HBV genotypes and subgenotypes have reported marked differences in outcome. Certain HBV genotypes and subgenotypes, including genotype C, B2-5, and F1, appear to be associated with a higher risk of developing HCC, and others, including genotypes B1, B6, and A2, appear to be associated with a lower risk of complications of HBV. Our understanding of the role of HBV genotypes and subgenotypes on the outcome of HBV infection is limited, as few population-based prospective studies have been performed and most studies compare only the outcome in areas where two genotypes predominate whereas others have not examined subgenotypes. Studies to date suggest that HBV genotypes/subgenotypes have important influences on the outcome of chronic HBV infection, but more population-based prospective studies examining multiple genotypes are needed.
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            Hepatitis B virus genetic diversity in Latin America.

            Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is still a significant health concern in Latin America, where around 11 million persons are infected. Amerindian populations exhibit the highest prevalences of infection in the region. HBV exhibits a degree of variability intermediate between DNA and RNA viruses. This plasticity leads to the generation of several mutants and genotypic variability. Eight HBV genotypes (A-H) have been described, based on a minimum divergence of 8% of the complete genome sequences. HBV genotype F is the most divergent of the HBV genotypes, is autochthonous to South America and is highly predominant in the Northern region of South America. The recently described HBV genotype H is closely related to genotype F and seems to be restricted to Central and North America. Recombination among different HBV strains seems to be frequent, although it has not been described yet between American genotypes. Inside HBV genotype F, four subgenotypes have been described, which exhibit a geographic pattern of distribution. The clinical and biologic importance of the genotypic diversity of HBV is of major concern at the present moment and has been studied in Asia and Europe. In contrast, it is not known whether infection with the American HBV genotypes F and H is associated with a rapid or slow development of disease. The origin of HBV is still an open question. Depending on the model used for the phylogenetic analysis, an Asian or an American origin of HBV has been proposed. By revisiting the genotypic diversity of HBV, an alternative explanation is that human HBV genotypes might have emerged by several zoonotic introductions, both in the Old and the New World.
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              Clinical significance of hepatitis B virus genotypes, variants, and mutants.

              Emerging evidence suggests that hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes may influence the rate of spontaneous and interferon-induced hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion as well as the natural history of liver disease. In contrast, the dinical significance of precore and core promoter variants associated with HBeAg negative liver disease is less certain in light of the many competing host and virologic factors noted in reported studies. HBV surface mutants are primarily associated with prior vaccine or hepatitis B immune globulin exposure and do not appear to have untoward virulence or association with occult HBV infection. Polymerase mutants with reduced drug sensitivity and phenotypic resistance are commonly detected in patients receiving prolonged antiviral therapy and have a variable impact on disease outcomes. The introduction of additional nucleoside/nucleotide analog agents will likely lead to the development of further unique polymerase mutants with varying pathogenicity and cross-resistance to existing drugs.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                gen
                Gen
                Gen
                Sociedad Venezolana de Gastroentereología (Caracas )
                0016-3503
                June 2011
                : 65
                : 2
                : 105-107
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Intediag-HV Venezuela
                [2 ] Instituto Médico La Floresta Venezuela
                [3 ] Hospital de Clínicas Caracas Venezuela
                [4 ] Centro Médico de Caracas Venezuela
                [5 ] Hospital de Niños JM de Los Ríos Venezuela
                [6 ] Policlínica Metropolitana Venezuela
                [7 ] Instituto Diagnóstico Venezuela
                [8 ] Clínica La Arboleda Venezuela
                [9 ] Instituto de Clínicas y Urología Tamanaco Venezuela
                [10 ] Clínica Acosta Ortiz Venezuela
                [11 ] Hospital Universitario de Maracaibo Venezuela
                [12 ] Hospital Universitario de Caracas Venezuela
                [13 ] Hospital Antonio María Pineda Venezuela
                [14 ] Hospital Luis Gómez López Venezuela
                Article
                S0016-35032011000200008
                7adc0554-995a-42bd-aaa4-d4eb7262933e

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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                SciELO Venezuela

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0016-3503&lng=en

                B hepatitis,Genotypes,Chronic hepatitis B,Hepatitis B,Genotipos,Hepatitis crónica B

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