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      An Introduction to the Inverted/Flipped Classroom Model in Education and Advanced Training in Medicine and in the Healthcare Professions Translated title: Eine Einführung in die Inverted/Flipped-Classroom-Methode in der Aus- und Weiterbildung in der Medizin und den Gesundheitsberufen


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          In describing the inverted classroom model (ICM), the following paper is meant to provide an introduction to the subject matter and to serve as a practical guide for those wishing to employ its methods in basic and advanced medical training and education. The ICM is a blended-learning method in which a self-directed learning phase (individual phase) precedes the classroom-instruction phase. During the online phase, factual knowledge is imparted that serves as a basis for the classroom phase. The classroom phase should subsequently be used to assimilate and implement the previously gained knowledge. In contrast, traditional course concepts impart factual knowledge in lectures, for example, or in other face-to-face teaching formats and are followed by the students’ self-instruction in order to assimilate this knowledge. The goal of the ICM is the shift from passive learning to accelerated learning in order to foster learning at cognitively demanding levels such as analysis, synthesis and evaluation.

          The concurrent increase in production and use of screencasts and educational videos, the Open Educational Resources “movement” and the widespread use of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCS) have contributed to the increased dissemination of the inverted-classroom method. The intention of the present paper is to provide an introduction to the subject matter and simultaneously to offer a short overview of important projects and research results in the field of medical education and other health professions. Furthermore, an outline is given of the advantages and disadvantages of the model as well as its potential benefit to the future of medical education and training.


          Dieser Artikel beschreibt die Inverted-Classroom-Methode (ICM) im Sinne einer Einführung in die Thematik und soll als Praxisleitleitfaden für diejenigen dienen, die diese Methode in der medizinischen Aus-, Fort- und Weiterbildung einsetzen möchten. Es handelt sich bei der ICM um einen Blended-Learning-Methode, bei dem eine Selbstlernphase (individuelle Phase) vor die Präsenzunterrichtsphase gesetzt wird. In der Online-Phase wird Faktenwissen vermittelt, das als Grundlage für die Präsenzphase dient. Die Präsenzphase soll anschließend dafür genutzt werden, das erlernte Wissen zu vertiefen und anzuwenden. Dem gegenüber stehen die traditionellen Kurskonzepte, in denen das Faktenwissen beispielsweise in Vorlesungen oder in anderen Präsenzunterricht-Formaten vermittelt wird und die Vertiefung dieses Wissens durch die Studierenden im Anschluss daran im Selbststudium stattfinden soll.

          Das Ziel der ICM ist die Verschiebung des passiven Lernens hin zum aktivierenden Lernen, um das Lernen auf kognitiv anspruchvollen Ebenen wie Analyse, Synthese und Evaluation zu unterstützen.

          Dabei haben die gestiegene Produktion und Nutzung von Screencasts und Lernvideos, die „Bewegung“ der „Open Educational Resources“ und die verbreitete Nutzung von „Massive Open Online Courses“ (MOOCs) zu einer gestiegenen Verbreitung der Inverted-Classroom-Methode beigetragen. Der Artikel soll als Einführung in die Thematik dienen und dabei eine kurze Übersicht über wichtige Projekte und Forschungsergebnisse in der medizinischen Ausbildung und in weiteren Gesundheitsberufen geben. Außerdem werden die Vor- und Nachteile der Methode und ihr potentieller Nutzen für die zukünftige medizinische Aus- und Weiterbildung dargestellt.

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          Most cited references85

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          Inverting the Classroom: A Gateway to Creating an Inclusive Learning Environment

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            The flipped classroom: a course redesign to foster learning and engagement in a health professions school.

            Recent calls for educational reform highlight ongoing concerns about the ability of current curricula to equip aspiring health care professionals with the skills for success. Whereas a wide range of proposed solutions attempt to address apparent deficiencies in current educational models, a growing body of literature consistently points to the need to rethink the traditional in-class, lecture-based course model. One such proposal is the flipped classroom, in which content is offloaded for students to learn on their own, and class time is dedicated to engaging students in student-centered learning activities, like problem-based learning and inquiry-oriented strategies. In 2012, the authors flipped a required first-year pharmaceutics course at the University of North Carolina Eshelman School of Pharmacy. They offloaded all lectures to self-paced online videos and used class time to engage students in active learning exercises. In this article, the authors describe the philosophy and methodology used to redesign the Basic Pharmaceutics II course and outline the research they conducted to investigate the resulting outcomes. This article is intended to serve as a guide to instructors and educational programs seeking to develop, implement, and evaluate innovative and practical strategies to transform students' learning experience. As class attendance, students' learning, and the perceived value of this model all increased following participation in the flipped classroom, the authors conclude that this approach warrants careful consideration as educators aim to enhance learning, improve outcomes, and fully equip students to address 21st-century health care needs.
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              Improved learning in a large-enrollment physics class.

              We compared the amounts of learning achieved using two different instructional approaches under controlled conditions. We measured the learning of a specific set of topics and objectives when taught by 3 hours of traditional lecture given by an experienced highly rated instructor and 3 hours of instruction given by a trained but inexperienced instructor using instruction based on research in cognitive psychology and physics education. The comparison was made between two large sections (N = 267 and N = 271) of an introductory undergraduate physics course. We found increased student attendance, higher engagement, and more than twice the learning in the section taught using research-based instruction.

                Author and article information

                GMS J Med Educ
                GMS J Med Educ
                GMS J Med Educ
                GMS Journal for Medical Education
                German Medical Science GMS Publishing House
                17 May 2016
                : 33
                : 3
                : Doc46
                [1 ]Klinikum der Universität München, Institut für Didaktik und Ausbildungsforschung in der Medizin, München, Deutschland
                [2 ]Philipps Universität Marburg, Fachbereich Medizin - Studiendekanat, Marburg, Deutschland
                [3 ]Universitätsmedizin Göttingen, Studiendekanat, Medizindidaktik und Ausbildungsforschung, Göttinge, Deutschland
                [4 ]University College London, Health Behaviour Research Centre, London, UK
                [5 ]CAU Kiel, Medizinische Fakultät, Studiendekanat, Koordination E-Learning, Kiel, Deutschland
                [6 ]Technische Universität München (TUM), Fakultät für Medizin, Institut für Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, München, Deutschland
                [7 ]Goethe-Universität, Carolinum Zahnärztliches Universitäts-Institut gGmbH, Poliklinik Zahnerhaltungskunde, Frankfurt am Main, Deutschland
                [8 ]Goethe-Universität Frankfurt FB 16 Medizin, Dr. Senckenbergische Anatomie- Anatomisches Institut II, Frankfurt, Deutschland
                [9 ]RWTH Aachen, Metizinische Fakultät, Audiovisionelles Mediencentrum, Aachen, Deutschland
                [10 ]Universität Ulm, Medizinische Fakultät, Studiendekanat Molekulare Medizin, Kompetenzzentrum eLearning in der Medizin BW, Ulm, Deutschland
                [11 ]Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Dieter Scheffner Fachzentrum für medizinische Hochschullehre und evidenzbasierte Ausbildungsforschung, Berlin, Deutschland
                [12 ]Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, USA
                Author notes
                *To whom correspondence should be addressed: Daniel Tolks, Klinikum der Universität München, Institut für Didaktik und Ausbildungsforschung in der Medizin, Ziemssenstraße 1, D-80336 München, Deutschland, E-mail: daniel.tolks@ 123456med.uni-muenchen.de
                zma001045 Doc46 urn:nbn:de:0183-zma0010451
                Copyright © 2016 Tolks et al.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

                : 08 April 2015
                : 16 March 2016
                : 04 March 2016

                inverted classroom,flipped classroom,medical education,educational video,open educational resources,moocs,blended learning,screencasts,podcasts,e-learning


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