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      Pets and vermin are associated with high endotoxin levels in house dust.

      Clinical and Experimental Allergy
      Air Pollution, Indoor, adverse effects, analysis, Allergens, Animals, Animals, Domestic, Ants, immunology, Cats, Child, Child Welfare, Child, Preschool, Cockroaches, Cross-Sectional Studies, Dogs, Dust, Endotoxins, Environmental Exposure, Floors and Floorcoverings, Germany, epidemiology, Guinea Pigs, Housing, Humans, Mice, Rabbits, Seasons

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          Previous studies have shown that the risk for allergic sensitization is lower in children who grew up on farms and in young adults who were exposed to dogs in early childhood. A higher microbial exposure in general and in particular to endotoxin in early childhood might contribute to this lower risk of atopy. We examined whether the presence of pets or vermin in the home is associated with higher endotoxin concentrations in settled house dust. House dust was sampled in a standardized manner on the living room floors of 454 homes of German children aged 5-10 years (participation rate 61%). Endotoxin was assessed with a quantitative kinetic chromogenic Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) method. Associations between endotoxin levels, pets and vermin are presented as ratios of the crude and confounder adjusted geometric means (means ratios) in the category of study vs. a reference category using multiple linear regression models. Endotoxin concentrations in living room floor dust sampled in homes without pets and vermin were lower (1246 ng per square meter, 1519 ng endotoxin/g dust, n = 157) than those sampled in homes with pets or vermin (2267 ng per square meter, 2200 ng endotoxin/g dust, n = 296). After adjustment for city of residence, season of dust sampling, age of the building and story of the dwelling, means ratios for endotoxin expressed per gram of dust were statistically significantly increased for dog (1.64, 95% CI 1.09-2.46), for cat (1.50, 95% CI 1.03-2.18) and for cockroach (3.01, 95% CI 1.37-6.60), whereas no major statistically significant associations were found for other pets, ants and mice. Keeping a dog or a cat in the home is consistent with higher exposure to endotoxin and might therefore contribute to the lower risk of atopy in later life.

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