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      Environmental Triggers of Autoreactive Responses: Induction of Antiphospholipid Antibody Formation

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          Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) comprise a diverse family of autoantibodies targeted against proteins with the affinity toward negatively charged phospholipids or protein-phospholipid complexes. Their clinical significance, including prothrombotic potential of anti-cardiolipin antibodies (aCLs), anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies (aβ2-GPIs), and lupus anti-coagulant (LA), is well-established. However, the ontogeny of these pathogenic aPLs remains less clear. While transient appearance of aPLs could be induced by various environmental factors, in genetically predisposed individuals these factors may eventually lead to the development of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Since the first description of APS, it has been found that a wide variety of microbial and viral agents influence aPLs production and contribute to clinical manifestations of APS. Many theories attempted to explain the pathogenic potential of different environmental factors as well as a phenomenon termed molecular mimicry between β2-GPI molecule and infection-relevant structures. In this review, we summarize and critically assess the pathogenic and non-pathogenic formation of aPLs and its contribution to the development of APS.

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          Cardiolipin polyspecific autoreactivity in two broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies.

          The design of a human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) immunogen that can induce broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies is a major goal of HIV-1 vaccine development. Although rare human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) exist that broadly neutralize HIV-1, HIV-1 envelope immunogens do not induce these antibody specificities. Here we demonstrate that the two most broadly reactive HIV-1 envelope gp41 human mAbs, 2F5 and 4E10, are polyspecific autoantibodies reactive with the phospholipid cardiolipin. Thus, current HIV-1 vaccines may not induce these types of antibodies because of autoantigen mimicry of the conserved membrane-proximal epitopes of the virus. These results may have important implications for generating effective neutralizing antibody responses by using HIV-1 vaccines.
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            Retroviruses human immunodeficiency virus and murine leukemia virus are enriched in phosphoinositides.

            Retroviruses acquire a lipid envelope during budding from the membrane of their hosts. Therefore, the composition of this envelope can provide important information about the budding process and its location. Here, we present mass spectrometry analysis of the lipid content of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and murine leukemia virus (MLV). The results of this comprehensive survey found that the overall lipid content of these viruses mostly matched that of the plasma membrane, which was considerably different from the total lipid content of the cells. However, several lipids are enriched in comparison to the composition of the plasma membrane: (i) cholesterol, ceramide, and GM3; and (ii) phosphoinositides, phosphorylated derivatives of phosphatidylinositol. Interestingly, microvesicles, which are similar in size to viruses and are also released from the cell periphery, lack phosphoinositides, suggesting a different budding mechanism/location for these particles than for retroviruses. One phosphoinositide, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P(2)], has been implicated in membrane binding by HIV Gag. Consistent with this observation, we found that PI(4,5)P(2) was enriched in HIV-1 and that depleting this molecule in cells reduced HIV-1 budding. Analysis of mutant virions mapped the enrichment of PI(4,5)P(2) to the matrix domain of HIV Gag. Overall, these results suggest that HIV-1 and other retroviruses bud from cholesterol-rich regions of the plasma membrane and exploit matrix/PI(4,5)P(2) interactions for particle release from cells.
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              Lipid domains in bacterial membranes and the action of antimicrobial agents.

              There has been increasing interest in recent years in describing the lateral organization of membranes and the formation of membrane domains. Much of the focus in this area has been on the formation of cholesterol-rich domains in mammalian membranes. However, it is likely that there are domains in all biological membranes. One of the challenges has been to define the chemical composition, lifetime and size of these domains. There is evidence that bacteria have domains that are enriched in cardiolipin. In addition, the formation of lipid domains can be induced in bacteria by clustering negatively charged lipids with polycationic substances. Many antimicrobial compounds have multiple positive charges. Such polycationic compounds can sequester anionic lipids to induce lipid phase separation. The molecular interactions among lipids and their lateral packing density will be different in a domain from its environment. This will lead to phase boundary defects that will lower the permeability barrier between the cell and its surroundings. The formation of these clusters of anionic lipids may also alter the stability or composition of existing membrane domains that may affect bacterial function. Interestingly many antimicrobial agents are polycationic and therefore likely have some effect in promoting lipid phase segregation between anionic and zwitterionic lipids. However, this mechanism is expected to be most important for substances with sequential positive charges contained within a flexible molecule that can adapt to the arrangement of charged groups on the surface of the bacterial cell. When this mechanism is dominant it can allow the prediction of the bacterial species that will be most affected by the agent as a consequence of the nature of the lipid composition of the bacterial membrane.

                Author and article information

                Front Immunol
                Front Immunol
                Front. Immunol.
                Frontiers in Immunology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                10 July 2019
                : 10
                1Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Immunology, Institute of Molecular Biology , Yerevan, Armenia
                2Russian-Armenian (Slavonic) University , Yerevan, Armenia
                3School of Medicine, Medical Sciences and Nutrition, University of Aberdeen , Aberdeen, United Kingdom
                Author notes

                Edited by: Kenneth Michael Pollard, The Scripps Research Institute, United States

                Reviewed by: Howard A. Young, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, United States; Laura Andreoli, University of Brescia, Italy

                *Correspondence: Rustam Aminov rustam.aminov@ 123456gmail.com

                This article was submitted to Autoimmune and Autoinflammatory Disorders, a section of the journal Frontiers in Immunology

                Copyright © 2019 Martirosyan, Aminov and Manukyan.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 162, Pages: 14, Words: 12228


                drugs, vaccination, viruses, bacteria, antiphospholipid syndrome, antiphospholipid antibodies


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