Frequency and grade of premature ventricular depolarizations were assessed in 10 patients on maintenance renal replacement therapy. All medication was withdrawn prior to the study. Each patient was treated sequentially by 8 different methods [acetate and bicarbonate hemodialysis (HD), hemofiltration, hemodiafiltration, ultrafiltration, use of 5 different membranes]. Despite marked changes in serum electrolyte concentrations there was no difference in frequency or grade of premature ventricular beats between the periods before, during, and after renal replacement therapy. Comparison of the 8 methods tested revealed no superiority of 1 method during the observation period of 192 h for each patient. In a second group of 8 patients with confirmed coronary artery disease, acetate HD had no effect on grade and frequency of ventricular arrhythmias, although arrhythmias occurred more often (p < 0.05) and were more dangerous. We therefore conclude that the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias is primarily dependant on the presence of preexisting coronary artery disease and that HD or related methods do not increase the risk of ventricular ectopies in patients without digitalis medication.